In this study, biodegradable Fe-Zn alloys were fabricated by conventional powder metallurgy method for temporary implant applications. Magnesium, iron and zinc are the 3 main biodegradable metals. In general, biodegradation rate of the magnesium alloys is too high, while biodegradation rate of the zinc alloys is slow and zinc alloys are brittle. In addition, Zinc alloys show low strength and low plastic deformation. In general, biodegradation rate of the iron alloys is very slow. Biodegradable Fe-Zn alloys are promising for the temporary implant applications. In the present study, metal ion release amounts from the Fe-Zn alloy samples were lower than the toxic limit for the humans. Increasing Zn content from 0.5 to 12.0 weight % was decreased the elastic modulus of the alloys from 160 GPa to 125 GPa. Quantity of Zn and Fe ion release values were increased with the immersion time in SBF. Weight loss of the Fe-Zn alloys was increased with the immersion time. Increasing immersion time from 1 to 21 days increased the weight loss value from 0.4 to about 2.4 %. Increasing Zn content of the alloy raised the electrochemical corrosion rate of the alloy.
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can promote the dissolution of insoluble phosphorus in soil, enhancing the availability of soluble P and reducing the consumption of fertilizer and aid in sustainable agricultural development. The phosphate solubilising bacteria were isolated from the rhizospheric soils of the experimental site located in the ICAR-National Rice Research Institute's experimental farm in Cuttack, India. & the population of PSBs varied between 1-22.5 cfu/gm*104 and higher in DSR (Direct seeded rice) compared to TPR (Transplanted rice). Phosphate solubilization efficiency (PSE) of the isolates gave better result in Pikovskaya’s agar medium plates i.e. 188.9% in K6 (Kasalath, P80, DSR) rather than National Botanical Research Institute’s Phosphate growth medium (NBRIP) i.e. 73.3% for K6. The highest PSE% in C sources was found in lactose i.e. 166.7% for the isolate K9 (Kasalath, P0, DSR) and 180.0% for the isolate D17 (Dular, P80, TPR) for potassium nitrate as N source. The morphological study by staining characteristics showed that all the isolates were gram negative and cocci except D19 (Dular, P80, TPR) which was gram positive and rod shaped. Amplified fragments of oligonucleotide primers in RAPD characterization showed 51.81% polymorphism and 44.54% monomorphism. Based on dendrogram all the isolates were placed in group A except S11 (Dular, P80, TPR) which was placed in major group B showing great variation from all other isolates and group A consists of 6 minor groups in which minor group A6 was the largest containing 5 isolates i.e. Kasalath, P40, DSR (S13), Kasalath, P80, DSR (S14, S15, S16) & IR36, P40, DSR (S17).
This study determined the microbiological properties of soil samples from selected hydrocarbon impacted sites in the Niger Delta region. Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed. The following microbial properties were analyzed; Heterotrophic bacteria counts (cfu/g), Hydrocarbon Utilization Bacteria (cfu/g), Heterotrophic fungi counts (cfu/g) and Hydrocarbon Utilization Fungi (cfu/g). Findings revealed that the microbial properties of soil samples across selected impacted sites of the Niger Delta showed a significant difference in the surface and sub-surface levels with values for Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) ranging from (1.04 × 103 to 2.45 × 103 cfu/g) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) ranging from (3.96 × 103 to 9.99 × 103 cfu/g) for surface and sub-surface respectively with p-values <0.05 across all the sampled stations. Hydrocarbon Utilizing bacteria and fungi genera isolated were Clostridium, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Citrobacter, penicillium, Trichoderma, Geochrichum, Candida, Fusarium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium, Condiva, and Rhodotorula. Based on these findings, it is concluded that, the higher the concentration of pollutants in the soil, the more the number of microorganisms. Hence, it is recommended that the relevant agencies should constantly check the levels of microbial properties as per WHO guidelines.
One of the most significant tubers grown in Africa, cassava provides around one-third of the daily calories consumed. It has several nutritional advantages and is often ingested after peeling, washing, boiling, or drying. The objective of this study was to ascertain the mineral and proximate content of cassava peels from 3 sweet varieties. The analysis was carried out using accepted methods. The outcome revealed that TMS/98/0581 has 2.84% protein content. TME/98/419 with 4.33% and TMS/98/30572 with 2.41%. The carbohydrate content showed that TMS/98/0581 has the lowest parameter with 72.20% while TMS/98/30572 has the highest with 75.82% followed by TME/98/419 with 75.20%. Also, the DM (Dry Matter) of TME/98/419 has the highest yielding with 87.51% followed by TMS/98/30572 with 86.95% while TMS/98/0581 has the lowest DM of 85.97%. The fat content of TME/98/419 yielded highest parameter of 1.09% followed by TMS/98/0581 with 0.46% and the least was TMS/98/30572 with 0.40%. The fiber content of TMS/98/0581 cultivar produced the least content with 5.44% followed by TMS/98/30572 with 6.13% and the highest been TME/98/419 with 6.62%. The peel further contained certain amount of minerals. The peel of cultivar TME/98/419 contained 19.81mg/100g which is the highest while TMS/98/30572 has the lowest with 13.74mg/100g followed by TMS/98/0581 16.23mg/100g. Zinc content of TME /98/419 yielded the highest parameter of 6.72mg/100g followed by TMS/98/30572 for 5.65mg/100g and the least is TMS/98/0581 with 5.36mg/100g. Furthermore, the magnesium content of TMS/98/0581 had the highest value of 14.81mg/100g followed by TME/98/419 with 14.40mg/100g and the least TMS/98/30572 with 12.80mg/100g. The result therefore showed that cassava peels could serve as supplementary source of essential nutrients for animal feeds with healthy benefits than its disposal.
Introduction: Epidemiologic variables (prevalence and impact) of coronavirus disease were evaluated among health workers to elucidate the occupational risk of frontline fighters of the viral infection.
Methods: This is a descriptive study performed from September to December 2021 on all consenting healthcare workers (HCWs) in a health facility in southern Nigeria. Data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 23.
Results: About 339 volunteered HWs consisting of doctors 88 (26.0%), nurses 78 (23.0%), midwives 54 (15.9%), laboratory scientists 32 (9.4%), pharmacists 21 (6.2%), Public Health Surveillance Officer 29 (8.6%), psychosocial counselor 11 (3.2%), administrative officers 17 (5.0%) and others 9 (2.7%) were involved in the study. About 98 (28.9%) were COVID-19 patients while 241 (71.1%) were healthy. Among 98 unhealthy HCWs, 55 (56.1%) were male, and 43 (43.9%) with an age range of 18 – 79 years. The symptoms distribution produced among the unhealthy volunteers included; fever 12 (12.2%), dry cough 17 (17.3%), productive cough 6 (6.1%), Dyspnea 7 (7.1%), Anosmia 9 (9.2%), headache 8 (8.2%), fatigue 8 (8.2%), Myalgia 4 (4.1%), Aguesia 6(6.1%), Diarrhea 4 (4.1%), sore throat 5 (5.1%), Rhinorrhea 3 (3.1%), Vomiting 2 (2.0%) and Others 7 (7.1%). The study also showed that there was a significant distribution of anxiety and depression among the frontline fighters, P<0.05.
Conclusion: The distribution and impact of the virus observed among clinical and clinical support staff in this study provided an evidence-based occupational risk of the virus on HCWs, especially the frontline fighters; Hence, forming a basis for the need to put in place measures to manage and curtail the viral infection rate in hospital facilities in addition to enhancing prevention behavior of HCWs.