Main Article Content



Temperature is the most important factor affecting rose plant growth and flowering. Different components of productivity and quality, such as bud breaking, rate of flower abortion, formation of renewal shoots, the time between harvests, length, weight and diameter of stem and flower buds, leaf area and pigmentation of petals are affected by temperature. Cold or low temperature resulted in an increased in flower yield, stem length and flower quality. In this review, the current knowledge and possible understanding of low or cold temperature, which can be used to improve the bud break, shoot growth, flower yield and quality of the rose plant, have been reviewed and discussed. The role of low or cold temperature to mitigate the harmful effects of heat stress in the rose plant is also examined.

Bud break, flower quality, flower yield, plant growth, temperature

Article Details

How to Cite
DESTA, B., TENA, N., & AMARE, G. (2022). RESPONSE OF ROSE (Rosa hybrida L.) PLANT TO TEMPERATURE. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, 7(1), 93-101. Retrieved from
Review Article


Gudin S. Rose: Genetics and breeding. Plant Breed. Rev. 2000;17: 159-189.

Evans A. Rose imports. Flor. Intl. 2009;19:42-43.

Zieslin N, Mor Y. Light on roses. A review, Sci. Hort. 1990;43:1-14.

Shin H, Lieth JH, Kin S, Shin HK, Kim SH, Zieslin N. Effect of temperature on leaf area and flower size in rose. Acta Hort. 2001;547:185-191.

Martin G. Use of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography for analysis of some essential oils. Chem. Abst. 1980;84:87-90.

Lerner BR, Dana MN. Roses. Flowers, Ho-128-W, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lafayette, In; 2003.

Nadeem M, Khan MA, Riaz A, Ahmad R. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosahybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions. Pakistan J Agric Sci. 2011;48:283-288.

Hassanein AMA. Improved quality and quantity of winter flowering in rose (Rosa spp.) by controlling the timing and type of pruning applied in autumn. World J Agric Sci. 2010;6:260-267.

Saffari VR, Khalighi A, Lesani MB. Effects of different plant growth regulators and time of pruning on yield components of Rosa damascena mill. Int J Agric Biol. 2004;6:1040-1042.

Bredmose N. Effects of year-round supplementary lighting on shoot development, flowering and quality of two glasshouse rose cultivars. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam). 1993;54:69-85.

Cline MG. The role of hormones in apical dominance. New approaches to an old problem in plant development. Physiol Plant. 1994;90:230-237.

Maas FM, Hofman-Eijer LB, Hulsteijn K. Flower morphogenesis in Rosa hybrida 'Mercedes' as studied by cryo-scanning electron and light microscopy. Effects of light and shoot position on a branch. Annals of Botany. 1995;75:199-205.

Evans LT. Flower Induction and the Florigen Concept. Annu Rev Plant Physiol. 1971;22:365-394.

Acker, C.A.M., 1994. Axillary bud development in rose. Wageeningen Agricultural University

Bendahmane MA, Dubois O Raymond, Bris ML. Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:847-857.

Grodzinski JJ, Jiao B. Environmental influences on photosynthesis and carbon export in greenhouse roses during development of the flowering shoot. J Amer Soc Hort Sci. 1998;123:1081-1088.

Chimonidou D. Flower development and the abscission zone. In: Av Roberts, T. Debener, S. Gudin, (2nd eds). Encyclopedia of rose science, Elsevier. 2003;504- 512.

Singh BR, Patil MT, Patil GK, Bhujabal BG. Performance of Indian bred rose cultivars. J. Maharashtra. Agri. Uni. 1994;19:344-345.

Mulla AL, Patil MT, Singh BR. Growth and flowering performance of rose cultivars. J. Mashrashtra Agri. Uni. 1995;20:227-229.

Manjula GM. Performance of rose cultivars under naturally ventilated polyhouse. MSc thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India; 2005.

Lammerts WE. The scientific basis of rose breeding. Am. Rose Ann. 1945;30:71- 79.

Farrante A, Trivellini A, Serra G. Color intensity and flower longevity of garden roses. Res. J. Bi. Sci. 2010;5:125-130.

Van Doorn WG. Effect of ethylene on flower abscission: A survey. Ann. Bot. 2002;89:689-693.

Marcelis-van Acker CAM. Effect of temperature on development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses. Sci. Hortic. 1995;63:251-261.

Khayat E, Zieslin N. Environmental factors involved in the regulation of sprouting of basal buds in rose plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1982;33:1286-1292.

De Vries DP, Dubois LAM. On the transmission of the yellow flower colour from Rosa foetida to recurrent flowering hybrid tea-roses. Euphytica. 1978;27:205-210.

Zieslin N, Moe R. Rosa. In: Halevy, A. H. (ed.). Handbook of flowering, vol. 4. Boca Raton, CRC Press. 1985;214-225.

Zieslin N, Halevy AH. Flower bud atrophy in Baccara roses. II. The effect of environmental factors. Sci Hort. 1975;3:383-391.

Van den Berg GA. Influence of temperature on bud break, shoot growth, flower bud atrophy and winter production of glasshouse roses. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 1987.

Vogelezang JVM, De Hoog J, Marissen N. International Horticultural Congress, Part 5: Culture Techniques with Special Emphasis on Environmental Implications Chemical, Physical and Biological Means of Regulating Crop Growth in Ornamentals and Other Crops. Actahorticulturae; 2000.

Guilioni L, Wery J, Tardieu F. Heat stress-induced abortion of buds and flowers in pea: is sensitivity linked to organ age or to relations between reproductive organs? Annals of Botany. 1997;80:159-168.

Bjorkman T, Pearson KJ. High temperature arrest of inflorescence development in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic L.). Journal of Experimental Botany. 1998;49:101-106.

Warner RM, Erwin JE. Naturally occurring variation in high temperature induced floral bud abortion across Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Plant, Cell and Environment. 2005;28:1255-1266.

Takeoka Y, Hiroi K, Kitano H, Wada T. Pistil hyperplasia in rice spikelets as affected by heat stress. Sexual Plant Reproduction. 1991;4:39-43.

Beppu KT Ikeda, Kataoka I. Effect of high temperature exposure time during flower bud formation on the occurrence of double pistils in ‘Satohnishiki’ sweet cherry. Scientia Horticulturae. 2001;87:77-84.

Porch, T.G. and M.Jahn, 2001. Effects of high-temperature stress on micro sporogenesis in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant genotypes of Phaseolusvulgaris. Plant, Cell and Environment, 24: 723-731.

Sato S, Kamiyama M, Iwata T, Makita N, Furukawa H, Ikeda H. Moderate increase of mean daily temperature adversely affects fruit set of Lycopersicon esculentum by disrupting specific physiological processes in male reproductive development. Annals of Botany. 2006;97:731-738.

Holocomb EJ, Tsinaraki ET. The effect of varying the day temperature on the growth and yield of roses. Bulletin Pennsylvania Flower Growers. 1987;37:1-2.

Lieth JH, Pasian CC. A model for net photosynthesis of rose leaves as a function of photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1990;115:486-491.

Moe R. Effect of day length, light intensity and temperature on growth and flowering in roses. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1972;97(6):796-800.

Zieslin N, Khayat E, Mor Y. The response of rose plants to different night temperature regimes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1987;112(1):86-89.

Moe R, Kristoffersen T. The effect of temperature and light on growth and flowering of Rosa Baccara in greenhouse. Acta Hort. 1969;14:157-166.

Mor Y, Halevy AH. Translocation of 14C-assimilates in roses. I. The effect the age of the shoot and the location of the source leaf. Physiol. Plant. 1979;45:177-182.

Jiao J, Grodzinski B. Environmental influences on photosynthesis and carbon export in greenhouse roses during development of the flowering shoot. J. Amer. Soc.Hort. Sci. 1998;123(6):1081-1088.

Jiao J, Gilmour M. Tsujita J, Grodzinski B. Photosynthesis and carbon partitioning in Samantha roses. Can. J. Plant Sci. 1989;69:577-584.

Khayat E, Zieslin N. Effect of different night temperature regimes on the assimilation, transport and metabolism of carbon in rose plants. Physiol. Plant. 1986;67:608-613.

Khayat E, Zieslin N. Mortensen L, Moe R. Effect of alternating temperature on dark respiration and 14C-export in rose plants. J. Plant Physiol. 1988;133:199-202.

Khayat E, Zieslin N. Translocation of 14C, carbohydrate content and activity of the enzymes of sucrose metabolism in rose petals at different night temperatures. Physiol. Plant. 1989;76:581-585.

Jawaharlal M, Rajamani K, Sundarman KS, Balakrishamirthy G. A note on the performance of hybrid progenies of rose. South Indian Horticulture. 1999;47:217- 218.

Damake MM, Bhattacharjee SK. Relationship between flower yield, flower character and weather parameters as influenced by NPK fertilization in super star roses. J. Orna. Hort. new Series. 2000;31:83-86.

Nowak J, Rudnicki RM. Postharvest handling and storage of cut flowers, florist greens and potted plant. Portland: Timber Press. 1990;210.

Serrano M, Martinez G, Pretel MT, Riquelme F, Romojaro F. Cold storage of rose flowers (Rosa hybrida, L. cv. Visa): Physiological alterations. Scientia Hort. 1992;51:129-137.

Leonard RT, Nell TA, Suzuki A, Barrett JE, Clark DG. Evaluation of long-term transport of Colombian grown cut roses. Acta Hort. 2001;548:293-297.

Faragher JD, Mayak S, Tirosh T. Physiological response of cut rose flowers to cold storage. Physiol. Plant. 1986;67:205-210.

Hu Y, Doi M, Imanishi DH. Competitive water relations between leaves and flower buds during transport of cut roses. J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1998;67:532-536.

Come D. Biological bases of the use of cold in ornamental horticulture, Acta Hort. 1991;298:21-28.

Marangoni AG, Palma T, Stanley DW. Membrane effects in postharvest physiology: Review. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 1996; 7:193-217.

Kim TE, Kim S, Han TJ, Lee JS, Chang SC. ABA and polyamines act independently in primary leaves of cold-stressed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Physio. Plantarum. 2002;115: 370-376.

Halevy AH, Mayak S. Senescence and postharvest physiology of cut flowers-Part 2. Hort. Rev. 1981;3:59-141.

Faragher JD, Mayak S, Tirosh T, Halevy AH. Cold storage of rose flowers: Effect of cold storage and water loss on opening and vase life of Mercedes roses. Scientia Hort. 1984;24:369-378.

Finger FL, de Moraes PJ, Barbosa JG, Grossi JAS. Vase life of bird-of paradise flowers influenced by pulsing and term of cold storage. Acta Hort. 2002;628:863-867.

Bredmose N. Growth, flowering, and postharvest performance of single-stemmed rose (Rosa hybrid L.) plants in response to light quantum integral and plant population density. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1998;123:569-576.

Chatterjee SR, Bhattacharjee SK, Mwangi M. Effect of precooling and pulsing on the biochemical changes during senescence in Golden Gate cut rose petals. Ind. J. Hort. 2003;60:394-398.

Ashrae, Commodity Storage Requirements. Refrigeration Systems and Applications Handbook. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers; 1994.

Koti S, Reddy KR, Reddy VR, Kakani VG, Zhao D. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide, temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation on soybean (Glycine max L.) flower and pollen morphology, pollen production, germination, and tube lengths. J. Exp. Bot. 2005;56:725-736.

Peet MM, Sato S, Gardner RG. Comparing heat stress effects on male-fertile and male-sterile tomatoes. Plant, Cell and Environment. 1998;21:225-231.

Young LW, Wilen RW, Bonham-Smith PC. High temperature stress of Brassica napus during flowering reduces micro- and mega gametophyte fertility, induces fruit abortion, and disrupts seed production. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2004;55:485-495.

Cross RH, McKay SAB, Mc Hughen AG, Bonham-Smith PC. Heat-stress effects on reproduction and seed set in Linum usitatissimum L. (flax). Plant, Cell and Environment. 2003;26:1013-1020.

Lacey EP, Herr D. Parental effects in Plantago lanceolata L. III. Measuring parental temperature effects in the field. Evolution. 2000;54:1207-1217.

Johnsen Ø, Dæhlen OG, Østreng G, Skrøppa T. Daylength and temperature during seed production interactively affect adaptive performance of Piceaabies progenies. New Phytologist. 2005a;168:589-596.

Johnsen Ø, Fossdal CG, Nagy N, Mølmann J, Dæhlen OG, Skrøppa T. Climatic adaptation in Piceaabies progenies is affected by the temperature during zygotic embryogenesis and seed maturation. Plant, Cell and Environment. 2005b;28:1090-1102.

Plaut Z, Zieslin N, Grawa A, Gazit M. The response of rose plants to evaporative cooling: Flower production and quality. SciHortic. 1979;11:183-190.

Dela G, Ovadia R, Nissim-Levi A, Weiss D, Oren-Shamir M. Changes in anthocyanin concentration and composition in ‘Jaguar’ rose flowers due to transient high-temperature conditions. Plant Sci. 2003;164:333-340.

Huh EJ, Shin HK, Choi SY, Kwon OG, Lee YR. Thermo susceptible developmental stage in anthocyanin accumulation and color Response to high temperature in red chrysanthemum cultivars. Korean J. Hortic. Sci. Technol. 2008;26:357-361.

Gonzalez A. Pigment loss in response to the environment: A new role for the WD/bHLH/MYB anthocyanin regulatory complex. New Phytologist. 2009;182:1-3.

Macrobbie EAC. Fluxes and compartmentation in plant cells. Ann. Rev. Pl. Phys. 1971;22:75-96.

Nichols R. The response of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) to ethylene. J. Hort. Sci. 1968;43:335-349.

Hanson AD, KENDE H. Ethylene-enhanced ion and sucrose efflux in Morning Glory flower tissue. Pl. Phys. 1975;55:663-669.

Suttle JC, KENDE H. Ethylene action and loss of membrane integrity during petal senescence in Tradescantia. Pl. Phys. 1980;65:067-72.

Borochov A, Faragher JD. Comparison between ultraviolet irradiation and ethylene effects on senescence parameters in carnation flowers. Ibid. 1983;71:536-540.

Lieberman M. Biosynthesis and action of ethylene. Ann. Rev. Pl. Phvs. 1979;30:533-591.

Mayak S, Halevy AH. Interrelationships of ethylene and abscisic acid in the control of rose petal senescence. Pl. Phys. 1972;50:341-346.

Faragher J, Mayak S. Physiological responses of cut rose flowers to exposure to low temperature: changes in membrane permeability and ethylene production. J. Exp. Bot. 1984;35:965-974.

Mayak S, Garibaldi EA, Kofranek AM. Carnation flower longevity: Microbial populations as related to silver nitrate stem impregnation. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1977;102:637-639.

Jena KK, SM Kim, Suh JP, Yang CI, Kim YG. Identification of cold tolerant breeding lines by quantitative trait loci associated with cold tolerance in rice. Crop Sci. 2010;52:517- 523.

Wang ZH, Ye DM, He YH, Zhang ZH, Zhang GS, Duan GZ. Comparison of the Content of MDA, Proline and activity of two kinds of enzyme in 5 common desert plants. Mol. Pl. Breed. 2018;16:3727-3731.

Campos PS, Quartin VN, Ramalho JC, Nunes MA. Electrolyte leakage and lipid degradation account for cold sensitivity in leaves of Coffea sp. Plants. J. Pl. Phys. 2003;160:283-292.

Deng RJ, Fan JX, Wang YQ, Jin JF, Liu T. Semilethal temperature of pitaya under low temperature stress and evaluation on their cold resistance. Pl. Phys. 2014;50:1742-1748.

Wang RH, Zhang Y, Kieffer M, Yu H, Kepinski S, Estelle M. HSP90 regulates temperature-dependent seedling growth in Arabidopsis by stabilizing the auxin co-receptor F-box protein TIR1. Nat Commun. 20167;Article 10269.

Liu F, Li H, Wang A, Fu ZY, Xiao XZ, Zhang GL, Wen SM. Comparison and evaluation on cold-tolerance of fourteen cut rose cultivars. Hubei Agric. Sci. 2018;57:75-79.

Ye YR, Wang WL, Zheng CS, Fu DJ, Liu HW. Evaluation of cold resistance of four wild Carex speices. Chin. J. Appl. Ecol. 2017;28:89-95.