Micronutrients play a vital role in gene expression, biosynthesis of protein, nucleic acids, growth substances, metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids through their involvement in various plant enzymic systems and other physiologically active molecules Generally, studies on micronutrients status of northern Nigeria Savanna soils is scanty. Accordingly, several researches advocate the need for assessing the micronutrients status of soils. This will ensure a more economic utilization of the soil resources by the resource-poor farmers and help in the government's drive towards food sufficiency. Thus, a study was conducted during the dry season of 2016 at the New Research Farm (NRF) of College of Agriculture, Gujba, located in Damaturu state capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. A total of 12 composite soil samples were collected at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths from six different, purposively selected representative locations in Damaturu LGA of Yobe State, Nigeria. Standard laboratory methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the soil samples. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics (mean value) and soil parameters were computed and employed to compare the results with the relevant findings. Critical limits for interpreting levels of soil fertility were adopted from Esu (1991). The result of the present study indicates that the soils were generally sandy loam in nature. Most of the macronutrient found under the neutral value of slightly acidic. The total N and the available P of the study site indicate medium while the available K indicate high content respectively. The micronutrients were mostly found within the safe zone or rather a medium category with the exception of Mn which was found to be in the low category of fertility rating. This implies that the soils contain insufficient Mn for successful agriculture in the area studied and could be a limiting factor to successful crop production in the area. It is suggested that for sustainable arable crop production on the soils studied, there is, therefore; the need for application of organic matter to improve the overall fertility of the soil and to formulate organo-mineral amendments that would enhance in particular, Mn availability.
Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica Olivier) extends over a very wide range from China to North Africa. In Morocco, it covers very small areas subject to very severe environmental stresses (aridity, salinity, heat). Vegetative propagation techniques easy to implement by nursery workers are not well documented in Morocco. The objective of this study is to develop an operational technique by cuttings. Dormant and lignified sets (length: 50 to 80 cm, diameter: 8.72 ±2.12 mm) sampled from Ait Atmane population, located between Er-Riche and Er-Rachidia in the south-central region from Morocco. The hormonal effect of indole butyric acid (IBA) at 1% and that of the growing medium were evaluated on sets rooting according to a factorial experimental design.
Rooting rate of living sets, after 2.5 months of culture, varied between 92.5 and 100%, with no significant effect of the growing medium and hormonal treatment. Hormonal treatment significantly improved the number of roots per set. It varied between 25.5 and 23.9 with hormone treatment, against 14.0 and 16.7 roots with none. Organic growing medium significantly improved root development. Rate of long and short root sets is significantly higher on organic growing medium with 55.4% and 65.8%, respectively, versus 23.7% and 37.8% on mineral growing medium, respectively. However, 18.4% of the sets showed necrosis at their bases after hormone treatment. Mortality was 52.5% in IBA-treated sets grown on mineral growing medium compared to only 5.3% on organic growing medium. Mortality rate of non-IBA treated sets did not exceed 1.3% on both types of growing medium. Rate of bud burst of live sets varied significantly between 80.3 and 98.8%, slightly higher without hormone treatment.
Cuttings of Euphrates poplar can be undertaken to enhance this species in marginal areas in the context of climate change. However, clonal variability exploration is necessary to select efficient and tolerant clones to environmental stresses.
Collaborative Forest Management (CFM) is an approach of sustainable forest management in collaboration with the local people to achieve multiple benefits, maintaining ecological balance, generating economic returns and improving livelihood from the government managed forests. This study was carried out to assess the forest product distribution pattern in the collaborative forest of Bara district of central Terai by collecting the data from five key informants and fifty households. Collected data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively and presented in tables. The results showed that the timber was demanded more by distant users whereas the pole, and fuel-wood were demanded more by nearby users. There is no provision of subsidy for the poor and Dalits. Resource distribution patterns should be done based on equity and plantation programs should be done to reduce the pressure in the core forest are suggested.
Ethiopia is the birthplace and is the largest producer of Arabica coffee in Sub Saharan Africa countries and it is ranked the fifth largest coffee producer in the world next to Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, and Indonesia which contributes more than 35% of total export earnings and it is a comer’s stone in supporting directly or indirectly 25% of the live hood of total population. It is produced almost all region of the country. However its production is mainly concentrated in the south, southwest and east of the country. The annual production ranges from 200,000 to 250,000 metric tons depending on weather and soil condition. Despite the favorable climatic condition variety for coffee and long history of production in Ethiopia, the quality of coffee and its grading level are poor due to different factors like soil, climate, pre and post-harvest factors, genetic makeup of the plants, institutional factors and socio economic back ground of the farmers. Both sun dried and fermented coffee is graded based on cup quality and raw value which accounts 60% and 40% respectively. There were some research done so far on the area of coffee fermentation, training for coffee expertise quality and some factors affect coffee quality like genetic factors. However; there is wide gap in information and documentation of major factors affecting coffee quality and its grading methods like effects of post-harvest processing and handling techniques of coffee quality. So the objective of this seminar paper is to review major factors affect coffee Arabica quality and it’s grading methods. And finally, Future research should be focused on such like factors that deteriorate quality of coffee Arabica and its grading.
Barley is an important food and beverage crop in the highlands of Ethiopia. Despite many importance of barley and its many useful characteristics, there are several factors affecting its production. Low Soil fertility is one of the major constraints affecting its production. Integrated nutrient management, where both natural and man-made sources of plant nutrients are used, is the best approach to supply adequate and balanced nutrients and increase barley productivity in an efficient and environmentally benign manner, without sacrificing soil productivity of future generations. With this in view, integrated applications of organic and inorganic fertilizer sources on yield and yield components of barley were assessed in this review. By this maintaining soil fertility is one of the main factors affecting the sustainability of barley production. The advantages need to be integrated in order to make optimum use of organic and inorganic fertilizer achieve balanced nutrient management for barley yield. This review study showed that balanced fertilization application using both organic and inorganic fertilizers is important for maintenance of yield and yield components of barley. The basic concept underlying the combined applications of fertilizers is the adjustment of soil fertility and plant nutrient supply to an optimum level for sustaining desired barley productivity through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner. Therefore, increased attention should be being paid to developing an integrated soil fertility management that maintains or enhances soil productivity through balanced use of all sources of nutrients. So the objective of this review is to assess the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on yield and yield components of barley.