High pH soil or alkaline soil impairs plant growth by restricting water availability to plants, inability of the plants to extract essential nutrients from soil and emergence of certain nutrient deficiency like phosphorus, zinc and iron. In this context, pot experiment was initiated in the glass house of Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to assess the influence of different methods of silicon fertilization on mineral nutrition, yield and silicon use efficiency in maize grown in high pH soil. The treatments imposed were T1) Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) T2) RDF + Seed priming with silicon @2mM( milli molar), T3) RDF + soil application @ 100 kg/ha, T4) RDF + soil application @150 kg/ha, T5) RDF + soil application @ 200 kg/ha T6) RDF + soil application @ 100 kg/ha + seed priming with silicon @2mM, T7) RDF + soil application @ 150 kg/ha + seed priming with silicon @2mM and T8) RDF + soil application @ 200 kg/ha + seed priming with silicon @2 mM. It was conducted in CRD with three replications employing maize var. Co8 as test crop. The outcome of the experiment was nutrient (N, P.K and Si) concentrations and uptake in grain and stover were also positively influenced by providing maize crop with silicon through seed and soil along with RDF over no silicon. The percent enhancement due to silicon treatments on nutrient uptake ranged from N (62.6 to 104.8%), P (89.2 to 178.4%), K (72.4 to 117.3%) and Si (107.9 to 185.2%) over no silicon addition. the maize crop supplied with silicon as seed primer or directly added to soil recorded signicantly higher grain yield ( 27.8 to 30.3 g /plant ) as against 19 g/plant( no silicon) and stover yield ( 33.4 to 38.7 g/plant) as against 22.5 g/plant (no silicon). Agronomic efficiency, apparent Si recovery decreased with silicon levels and values were higher when maize crop received silicon through seed and soil compared to individual application. It is concluded that under alkaline stress, application silicon through soil application (200 kg/ha) and seed priming (2mM) is most profitable venture in ensuring higher maize yield and mineral nutrition.
The relative activity of soils is intimately relating to their specific soil properties as well as by their mineralogical characterization; these properties largely determine the chemical behavior of the surface chemistry and its kinetic reactions. This work aimed to evaluate the contribution of some chemical properties of five calcareous soils (Typic calcids), varied in their total and active CaCO3, on cadmium (Cd2+) sorption characterization using kinetic approach. The obtained results revealed that empirical modified Freundlich (power function) and Elovich equations compared to other models tested best described kinetic data. The rate of Cd2+ sorption on used soils was highly positively correlated with the specific surface area of used soils through the simple correlation coefficient (r) takes place, multiple and stepwise regression analysis. For other soil parameters, results indicated that percent of clay contents, organic matter (OM) and total Cd2+ content were also influencing Cd+2 retention in used soils, these properties largely controlled the variations in rate constants of kinetic parameters of best fitted models and also the capacity factors of used models. The active CaCO3 content, which best fitted with the specific surface area, was negatively correlated and significant controlled the variations of kinetic parameters i.e. rate, and capacity factors of kinetic models. Through the obtained results, it could have suggested that adsorption followed by surface precipitation on active CaCO3 surfaces are the main mechanisms controlled Cd2+ retention and release.
The Ballari fort is a rich Historical heritage site with rich plant diversity. A survey on the flora of Ballari fort was carried out from January 2020 to June 2021. Ballari fort lies between 15.15°N latitude 76.933°E longitude. And it is situated at 602 MSL. The forts have scrubby Vegetation which includes Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, and Climbers. In the present study, 115 plant species belonging to 98 genera and 39 families of Angiosperms were collected and recorded in which Herbs are the largest species widely distributed in and around the fort of Ballari.
A pot experiment was carried out at the net house of Soil Science Department of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during the period from October, 2016 to March, 2017 to study the effect of Zn and Cu on the growth and yield of tomato. There were six doses of fertilizer in experiment, viz., T0= Control, T1= Recommended dose of fertilizer (N160P50K100S20) kg/ha, T2=75% NPKS from inorganic fertilizer and 25% NPKS from cowdung, T3= Recommended dose of fertilizer with Zn and Cu (N160P50K100S20+Zn4+Cu4) kg/ha, T4= Recommended dose of fertilizer with Cu (N160P50K100S20 +Cu4) kg/ha, T5= Recommended dose of fertilizer with Zn (N160P50K100S20+Zn4) kg/ha were used to conduct this experiment. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) having one factors and three replications. Data were taken on growth, yield contributing characters, yield and the collected data were statistically analyzed for evaluation of the treatment effects. All the plant parameters were influenced significantly by the application Zn and Cu with other chemical fertilizers. The tallest plant, maximum number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, maximum number of flowers cluster per plant number of flowers per plant were produced by recommended dose of fertilizer with Zn and Cu (N160P50K100S20+Zn4+Cu4) kg/ha. The higher number of fruits per plant was observed in T3 treatment. The Zinc and Copper of tomato significantly influenced on the yield of fruits per plant. The maximum yield of fruits per plant (347.60 g) was obtained from T3 treatment and the minimum yield of fruits per plant (183.73 g) was obtained from control treatment.
Crop water requirements (CWR) is crucial to the choice of irrigation plants and plant structures in specific areas, notably in Bandarban, Bangladesh, that that give economical water use and higher irrigation practices, corresponding to performed to estimate irrigation needs and irrigation of boro rice (watered within the dry season) was programmed in the Bandarban region of Bangladesh using the FAO CROPWAT model. The seven crop growth stages (nursery, nursery/land preparation, land prepearation, initial, development, mid-season, late season) and three decades (I, II, III) were considered for boro rice. This study calculable the harvest reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and irrigation requirements of boro rice grown in the area. The several climate data from 1988 to 2018 were collected by the Chattogram meteorological Station, the model calculable 40.77mm /day ETo within the study area, of that the best quantity of 4.30 mm/day in April and therefore the lowest 2.36 mm/day in December. The evapotranspiration of the cultures ranged from 0.29 mm/day to 4.84 mm/day. The results showed that the typical annual precipitation and the effective precipitation were 300.7 mm/day. mm or 105.1 mm for plant growth and development. The irrigation water demand resolves to be 543.5 mm/dec. This was compared to the irrigation water demand knowledge calculated by CROPWAT to assess whether or not or not farmers were active in associate economic irrigation application.
Piper betel or Betelvine leaves called Pan belongs to the family Piperaceae. Leaves are rich in many nutrients like water, energy, protein, fats, fiber, calcium and iron etc. and the antioxidants and used for chewing in Bangladesh. The foot and root rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is the most devastating disease that decreases the production of betel leaf. The betelvine growers have no sustainable approach for controlling the disease to increase production. The objective of the study was to find out the integrated effect of integrated pest management components for the management of foot and root rot disease of betelvine caused by S. rolfsii. The experiment was conducted in a betelvine orchard (Baroj) under field condition. The integrated application of nine IPM components in 22 treatment combinations including an untreated control were evaluated under inoculated conditions to control foot and root rot of betel vine caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Efficacy of as integrated approach application of either Provax 200 (0.25%) or Score 250 EC (0.05%) or Garlic clove extract (1:1 w/v) (15% concentration) in combination with soil application of Trichoderma harzianum (5g of culture in barley grain) or Vermi-compost (30g per plant) was found as the suitable approach for the management of foot and root rot disease of betel vine that reduced up to 100% disease incidence increasing yield up to 82.78% over control. So, the integrated effect of IPM components, soil drenching with either garlic clove extract or Provax 200 or Score 250 EC in combination of soil amendment with T. harzianum or Vermi-compost are recommended the promising performances for the eco-friendly management of foot and root rot disease of betelvine.
Increase the germination of seed and breakdown the dormancy is the major issue among plants of Cucurbitaceae family due to the presence of hard seed coat. Seeds of both Luffa cylindrica and Momordica charantia have hard seed coat with thick seed structure. Also, deposition of phenolic compounds including pectin and/or suberin on the surface of the seed coat, restrict water uptake into the seed. Seed germination treatments are helpful to increase the germination rate. Therefore, batches of seeds for both plants subjected to various seed germination treatments: Physical treatments such as Nicking, Chilling, Soaking and Pre- Soaking, Moist Cloth Bag were applied and Chemical Treatments such as soaking in Acetone, Hydrogen Peroxide, Potassium nitrate with their variables in respect to control. After germination the seedling were transferred to the sapling-bags for further growth and development of the vegetative parts to observe the changes occurred due to the treatments. After the seedling growth, internal structure of stem as well as root were observed. Noticeable changes were observed in the development of vascular bundles. Treatments such as Hydrogen peroxide, Potassium nitrate, Moist cloth bag and soaking in distilled water and boiled water gives good results for higher germination rate.
The present communication aims to envisage the physico-chemical properties of soils in relation to the vegetational parameter in the subtropical and temperate forest stands of Western Himalaya. A total of four forest stands were investigated for various vegetational and physico-chemical properties ranging from 300-2250 m m.s.l. The study revealed that the soil moisture, water holding capacity (WHC) and total nitrogen recorded maximum (26.33%, 63.52%, and 0.41% respectively) in the mixed oak forest stands and minimum (19.09%, 46.28%, and 0.14% respectively) in the sal forest stands, however, the soil organic carbon (SOC) was reported maximum (4.25%) in banj-oak forest and minimum (1.23%) in sal forest stands. Temperate oak forests are richer in terms of specie richness, diversity as well as physical and chemical properties of soil as compare to subtropical sal and chir-pine forest stands. This result indicate that the soil nutrient dynamics is positively correlated with species diversity and richness of forest.
The wastes from cassava processing mills are usually discharged uncontrollably into the environment where they cause serious environmental challenges. This research work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the cassava mill effluent on the physicochemical effects and also to determine the effects of the polluted soil on the growth of maize plants. Fresh cassava mill effluent and unpolluted soil samples were collected and analyzed physicochemically. The soil sample was polluted with the cassava mill effluent and the polluted soil was also subjected to physicochemical analysis after 31days. Germination and growth of maize plants were also investigated using soil samples polluted with different concentrations of the cassava mill effluent. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that the effluent was acidic (pH 3.95). It has total titrable acid value of 139mg/l, total dissolved solid value of 654.86mg/l, nitrate and cyanide contents of 89.65mg/l and 32.78mg/kg respectively. The concentration profile of metals was in the order Ca>K>Mg>Na>P>Zn>Pb>Fe>Cu>Mn. The results of the analyses of the unpolluted soil and the effluent polluted soil samples showed that the effluent had noticeable effects on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The effluent increased the acidity of the soil from pH 6.85 to pH 4.25. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from the physicochemical analysis of the polluted and unpolluted soil showed that there is a significant difference in the physicochemical characteristics of the unpolluted and polluted soil samples. The polluted soil also, at higher concentrations of the effluent inhibited the germination of plant. Irrigation of healthy growing plants with 100% concentration of the effluent resulted to the withering of the plants after few days. Elemental analysis of the healthy and withered plants showed a remarkable increase in the concentrations of metals in the withered plants. The effect of the effluent on the growth of plants was due to the presence of cyanide which makes the effluent acidic. This acidity affects the germination and growth of plants. This research work revealed the fact that the effluents from cassava processing mills have significant effects on the physicochemical properties of the surrounding soils and also affected the growth of plants on these soils negatively. It therefore suggested that this effluent should be treated properly before disposal to the environment.
Wine is produced from juices of variety of fruits by fermentative action of microorganisms (especially yeast) either spontaneously or seeding with a particular strain mainly of yeast species. It is one of the oldest things in history and is consumed for several reasons such as rituals, religious purposes, or just for the love of it. This research is aimed at isolating and identifying microorganisms in wine produced using red muscat grape. About 13 packets of Red Muscat Grape were bought from Eke Awka market, they were washed, blended and filtered to obtain must. The must was transferred into a sterile 100ml plastic containers and allowed to cool for 10mins before adding brewer’s yeast and other additives. The must was allowed to ferment for 6 days in the absence of oxygen so that the yeast converts the sugar of red muscat grapes into alcohol and carbon (iv) oxide. 2g of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) in 50 ml of sterile distilled water were measured into a conical flask. It was then autoclaved at 121oC for 15 mins at 15psi. The wine produced was cultured and microorganisms’ present were isolated and identified. The result showed probable spoilage bacteria and fungi which are Lactobacillus spp, Escherichiacoli, Micrococcus spp, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, and Fusarium spp. Despite good modern winemaking practices, microbial contaminations can occur. Therefore, quality wine production requires attention to possible sources of contamination during winemaking and aging. Studies have attributed food spoilage to these bacteria, especially in wine production. These fungi are known to affect the flavors and aromas of the finished wine, thereby changing the taste and flavor of the wine.
‘Usar’ soil is widespread about 25% lands are ‘Usar’/ Saline /Alkaline in India. ‘Usar’ soils are unproductive, impermeable, hard and compacts. Sodic limits the plants growth via poor water infiltration, increased mechanical resistance to root growth, water logging and poor water availability in the soil profile. The saline and alkaline lands of the state of Utter Pradesh are collectively known by the local name of ‘Usar’ lands. It has been estimated that about 2.1 million acres of land in this state. ‘Usar’ soils micro-organism (Cyanobacteria) with affluent diversity. In this study, abundance and diversity of cyanobacteria from the wastelands of Azamgarh and Varanasi districts (Uttar Pradesh) in India was studied. Soils samples were collected from three different sampling sites during the month of May 2016 to April 2017. Totally 50 morphologically different cyanobacteria were identify by microscopic examination and culture-dependent processes. The unicellular, multicellular and filamentous (heterocystous and non-heterocystous forms) cyanobacteria like Nostoc calcicola, N.linckia, N.punctiforme, N.spongiaeforme, N.illipsosporum, Anabaena ambigua A.fertilisma, A.iyangarii, Lyngbya ceylanica, L.limnetica, Phormidium sp.,Chroococcus micrococcus, C.gigantus, Spirulina laxissima, Anabaenopsis arnoldii, Microcoleus cathanoplastas, M.lacustris, Oscillatoria subbrivis O.chlorina The genus Nostoc, Anabaena, Lyngbya and Oscillatoria strain were widely distributed in all the sites emphasizing their adaptability and resilience under diverse environmental condition. Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed Bunda (site-1) with the highest cyanobacterial diversity (3.41) and the lowest was found in Bhawanipur (Site-3).Similarly, Simpson’s diversity index was also highest in Bunda (Site-1) (0.966) whereas Bhawanipur recorded lowest (0.901). However,Simpson’s index was maximum in Bhawanipur (0.0839) and was minimum in Bunda (0.0378). Shannon evenness was highest in Bunda (0.866) and lowest was found in Bhawanipur(0.759).
The study was conducted to document the diversity of shrubs in Betalghat region of Nainital district (Kumaun Himalaya, India). A total of 200 species belongs to 144 genera and 50 families were recorded from the study area. The dominant families were Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Apocynaceae, Rosaceae, Malvaceae, Rhamnaceae, Solanaceae, Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Oleaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Urticaceae, Asparagaceae, Rubiaceae and Rutaceae. The maximum and minimum number of species was reported in the altitudinal zones (1001-1300m), (1600-1800 m) respectively. Total recorded species from the region were used for various purposes such as fodder (130), medicinal (78), edible (56), fuel (50), ornamental (22), fibre (18), religious (12), bio-insecticides, padding for cattle (4), fish poison (3) and broom making (2). For each species, vernacular and botanical names, habitat preference, altitudinal range (m), flowering and fruiting period and utilization patterns were provided. This study is useful for determining the composition and their utilization pattern with developing strategies for the conservation and management of species.
One of the most vital environmental factors that restrict plant production in arid and semi-arid environments is the lack of fresh water and drought stress. Field experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Experimental Station of National Research Centre, Nubaria; Behiera Governorate, Egypt during the 2019/2020. The experiment conducted to study the effect of ascorbic acid in mitigating the adverse effects of water stress on pea plants in split-plot design. The experiment included three irrigation regimes (80%, 60% and 40% of water holding capacity) and four level of ascorbic acid (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) applied as foliar spray. The results revealed that water stress reduced the chlorophyll, growth and seed yield, while increased proline content and crop water productivity. Highest of macronutrient contents were attained by application of ascorbic acid under all examined water stress. Data showed that the highest values of yield parameters (fresh weight, Pod number and seed number/pod) were attained after application of ascorbic acid under sufficient irrigation at 80, 60 and 40% WHC, respectively. The reduction of grain yield reduced comparing 80% with 40% WHC, while the opposite was true in water use efficiency which increased by increasing water stress. Biological yield was highly recorded at after application of ascorbic acid (300 ppm) under 80, and 40% WHC, respectively. Enhanced water stress tolerance through adequate ascorbic acid application is a promising strategy to increase the tolerance and productivity of pea plants under water stress.
From March to May 2019, a field experiment was performed at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University's research farm in Dhaka to study the influence of nitrogen and sulfur on mungbean development and yield in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Three amounts of nitrogen (0, 15 & 25 kg ha-1, denoted as N0, N1, N2 correspondingly) and three levels of sulfur were used in the experiments ( 0, 20 & 25 kg ha-1 designated as S0, S1 & S2 respectively). With increasing nitrogen dosages up to 15 kg N ha-1, the number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000 seeds, and yield (1.11 t ha-1) rose considerably (N1). However, increasing nitrogen dosages up to 25 kg N ha-1 resulted in substantial increases in plant height at final harvest, number of branches, number of pods, and stover production (2.76 t ha-1) (N2 treatment). However, up to the treatment S1, plant height at final harvest, number of branches, weight of 1000 seeds, yield (1.04 t ha-1)and stover yield (1.86 t ha-1) all increased considerably (20 kg S ha-1). Plant height at final harvest, number of branches, seeds per pod, pod length, weight of 1000 seeds, yield (1.57 t ha-1), stover yield(2.53 t ha-1 ) increased up to N2S2 (25 kg N ha-1 + 25 kg S ha-1 ), but N2S1 treatment combination (25 kg N ha-1 + 20 kg S ha-1) showed statistically similar results as compared to N2S2 (25 kg N + 25 kg S ha-1) treatment.
Wheat productivity and soil health are the major concern of Pakistan in wake of increasing demand of the fast-growing population for food coupled with price hike in chemical fertilizers. Apart from the price hike of chemical fertilizers, excessive and imbalanced use may pose devastating effects on soil health, fertility, and sustainable productivity. One of the viable options is integrated nutrient management that is the use of organic, microbial, and chemical fertilizers together may not only increase crop yield, improve soil organic matter, farmers' profitability on a sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the wheat productivity and soil health improvement by INM (bio-organic chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid). The data was registered on yield, growth and ionic concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) and residual soil organic matter, N-NO3, P, and K sown under irrigated soil (ECe=0.57 dS m-1, pH=8.6 ) at Kalashakaku farmers’ field during winter-2020. The treatments were arranged by statistical design randomized complete block design (RCBD). Plant height, tillering, number of grains spike-1, straw and grain yield were significantly (p≤ 0.05) improved. Similarly, the grain content of N, P, K, Zn, B and soil organic matter were significantly improved by INM technology. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.2 ton ha-1) at the application of 120 kg N,90 kg P, 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 combined with biofertilizer and humic acid use and it was 23% more than farmer practice (FP) and 11% more than the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) respectively. The residual SOM was 1.0% and it was 11% more than control. This study confirms INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement and soil organic matter improvement of wheat on a sustainable basis.
Field study was conducted in 2016 and 2017 to investigate the potency of animal manures on phytonematodes infecting yam species (Dioscorea rotundata and D. alata). Nematode infested fields were prepared into plots of 2 m. Dried cow, poultry and swine manure were incorporated into each plot at the rate of 5 tons / hectare and 10 tons / ha immediately after land preparation while seed yam of 100-150 gm were planted into each heap two weeks later. There were fourteen treatments including control replicated four times in a 2 x 7 factorial experiments fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data collected include; nematode populations, weight of yam at harvest, total nitrogen, available phosphorous (P), exchangeable potassium (K) and soil pH. The results of the study revealed that the incorporation of dried and decomposed poultry, cow and swine manure both at lower and higher rates (5 tons / ha and 10 tons / ha) each reduced populations of the plant-parasitic nematodes and increased the yields of the two yam species. The results of this study therefore revealed that application of the amendments in a field infested with nematodes has the potentials for managing nematode population and nematode damage on D. rotundata and D. alata.
An experiment was conducted for detection and identification of field diseases of gerbera plants and flowers during February, 2019 to May, 2019 at Jashore district of Bangladesh. Laboratory studies were carried out in the Plant Disease Clinic of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Eighteen villages from 4 Unions of Jhikorgacha Upazila of Jashore district were considered for field survey. Three fields from each village were intensively investigated. The disease incidence and severity were recorded under natural epiphytic conditions. In total, eleven diseases and abnormalities were identified in the field condition. Among them, six fungal diseases were further studied in the laboratory and causal organism were isolated and identified. These were leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata, leaf blight caused by Botrytis cinerea, stem rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi, crown rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani, flower blight caused by Botrytis cinerea and petal spot caused by Alternaria alternata and Bipolaris sp. Moreover, foot and root rot, leaf curl, mosaic, flower curl and flower abnormality, which is a physiological disorder, were detected in fields but the causal organisms and causes responsible for the diseases were not studied. The incidence and severity of diseases were varied from 0-56% and 0-26%, respectively. Considering the disease incidence and severity, the major diseases of gerbera plants were leaf spot, leaf blight, flower blight, and flower abnormality in Bangladesh.
This research investigated the effect of pesticides application on the growth of two soil nitrifying bacteria species, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter respectively. The bacteria were isolated from soil samples obtained from Bingham University, Karu local government area of Nassarawa State, Nigeria. The soil bacteria were cultured using the Manniol Yeast Extract Agar (MYEA). The bacteria isolates where identified and characterized based on their morphology and chemical characteristics. The growth count of the bacteria after four (4) days isolation showed increase in the bacteria growth. Nitrosomonas obtained from MYEA ranged from 23 to 102 (x105) cfu/g, and the growth of Nitrobacter count obtained from MYEA ranged from 24 to 97 (x105) cfu/g. there was an increase in bacteria growth at both control level and decrease in bacteria growth at concentration level of 20% to 100% within 120 hours of observation for Nitrosomonas species. The result shows that F_ cal 0.830 was greater than F-tab 0.05, and Nitrobacter species. F_ cal 1.360 was greater than f-tab 0.05. Since the F- cal value is greater than F- tab value for both the Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species. The Null hypothesis is rejected and alternate is accepted. This shows that the nitrifying bacteria could not survive or grow under high pesticides concentration. It is therefore very important to examine pesticides in order to determine it toxicity to soil bacteria before application.
To evaluate the effect of different weed management practices on the yield of potato, a field experiment was carried out with potato during 2017-2018 at farmer’s field of the three hill districts of Chattogram, Bangladesh. The results revealed that the maximum weed control efficiency, marketable tuber yield was found in T3 (Hand weeding + Mulching= Two hand weeding was done in 30 DAT and 90 DAT and straw mulching were done in 30 DAT and continued up to harvesting) followed by T4 (Herbicide =Apply paraquat in 30 DAT and 60 DAT @ 851 g a.i. ha-1), T2 (Mulching= Straw mulch were done in 30 DAT and continued upto harvesting), T1 (Hand weeding = Three hand weeding was done in 30 DAT, 60 DAT and 90 DAT), respectively. The minimum was found in T6 unweeded control treatment. So, the findings of the experiment provide us with a great opportunity of using hand weeding and mulching in combination to cope up with the labour crisis and minimize the cost of cultivation in the hill districts of Chattogram, Bangladesh.
Heavy metal toxicity from anthropogenic activities has become a human and environmental health concern and requires tailored management strategies. Therefore, an ecological survey and a greenhouse-based study were conducted to assess the phytoextraction potential of Ipomoea aquatica and Pteridium aquilinum as common plant macrophytes of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from a human and surface environment health perspective. A gram of ground and sieved samples from whole plants (root, stem, and leaves) were weighed out in triplicate and digested aqua reqia. The concentrations of the four heavy metals in the digested plant samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The actual concentrations (mg kg-1) of the heavy metals of the soil I. aquatica was collected were Zn (448)>Pb(349)>Cu(197)>Cd(1.2) and in the plant samples Pb(12)>Cu(9)>Zn(2.2)>Cd(0.2). For P. aquilinum, concentrations for soil samples were Cu(1040)>Zn(193)>Pb(85)>Cd(10) and in plant samples Zn(195)>Pb(97)>Cu(43)>Cd(12). The results showed I. aquatica has a low potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and lesser concern for human consumption. The role of the two plants from an environmental health perspective is that I. aquatica is not suitable for phytostablisation and P. aquilinum is more of an accumulator and has high potential. The two plant macrophytes’ high level of tolerance to soil contaminated with heavy metals has implications for revegetation, phytostabilisation, and phytoextraction, as management strategies for contaminated surface environments.
Amylases are enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of starch molecules to give by-products including dextrin and progressively smaller polymers composed of glucose units. These enzymes are of great importance in the present day biotechnology with applications ranging from food, fermentation, textile to paper industries. Although amylases can be derived from several sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, microbial enzymes generally meet industrial demands. In this study, the microorganisms were isolated from cassava fermentation. The amylase producing potentials of bacterial and yeast isolates associated with cassava mash fermentation for garri production was analyzed. Samples were collected for 3 consecutive days from one particular batch of cassava fermenting for garri production in Orie Emene, Enugu state, Nigeria. The isolated organisms were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Corynebacterium manihot, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus fermentum. Amylase producing ability was screened for, using nutrient agar supplemented with starch. Results obtained revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhodotorula mucilagenosa had α – amylase producing ability.
Microbial enzymes have a lot of properties which makes them useful for particular works. Amylases are enzymes that break down starch or glycogen. In this work, potential amylase producing bacterial strain were isolated from soil and screened for amylase production. This was achieved by observation of clear zone of starch hydrolysis in starch agar plate, determination of amylase activity of crude amylase produced in submerged fermentation. Identification of the best isolate was achieved by biochemical tests analysis, morphological and microscopic characteristics, observation of clear zone of starch hydrolysis in starch agar plate. The isolates were Bacillus subtilis A1, Bacillus subtilis A2 and Bacillus subtilis B2. This study has shown that the studied samples harbored amylase producing Bacillus species of which Bacillus subtilis A1 exhibited the highest starch hydrolysis ratio (SHR).
The present investigation was carried out during the two successive years of 2019 and 2020. Using one of the commercial spinach hybrid (SCO-017) with high market quality. The aim of this study was to determine the vermicompost impact on yield and some growth properties as well as estimation of nutrient element contents in the spinach leaves. Also compare between vermicompost effect along with and without other Fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) including 7 treatments with 3 replications. Fertilizer treatments were as follows. T1- NPK (Control), T2- Chicken manure1.5 kg/m2, T3- Vermicompost 1.5kg/m2, T4- NPK + chicken manure, T5- NPK + vermicompost, T6- chicken manure + Vermicompost and T7- NPK + chicken manure + vermicompost. Results revealed that organic fertilizers such as vermicompost and chicken manure were better when compared with chemical fertilizer, and during the study, it was found that, all treatments in 2019 had a positive effect on the yield, except for the T2 (chicken manure), where the yield/plot increased 171.02%, 130.09%, 91.69%, 44.73% and 35.18 respectively for T5, T7, T4, T6 and T3 compared to T1. In 2020 five treatments gave positive response to total yield/plot T5, T7, T4, T6 and T3 which was increased by 50.13%, 47.37%, 4.77%, 3.86% and 3.78%.
Mentha spp. (locally named mint or spearmint) is an important widespread vegetable crop in different countries around the world. It was infected by many fungal diseases including powdery mildew and anthracnose. Powdery mildew is an important and serious fungal disease on Mentha spp. caused by the fungus Golovinomyces biocellatus (Formerly Erysiphe cichoracearum) which overwinters on mint, stubble and many wild hosts. The disease symptoms represented by appearing white powdery spots on the leaves and stems of the plant. So, these spots become larger and denser when the disease progresses. This disease can be controlled by removing plant debris, removing infected plants from the former season and using many suitable fungicides. Anthracnose is another important fungal disease that infects Mentha spp. It caused by the fungus Sphaceloma menthae and Colletotrichum spp., which may be considered as seed-borne fungi. The disease symptoms include circular, oval or irregular spots which firstly appear yellow to brown, then they become black with the age progress. This disease can be controlled by using healthy plant materials, mechanical practices and applying some suitable fungicides. Both of these two diseases are very important and harmful to mint plants, significantly reduce the crop production and cause serious economic losses. So, powdery mildew is more harmful than anthracnose. In this technical document, we summarize the current knowledge of powdery mildew and anthracnose diseases epidemiology symptoms and signs, disease cycle, ecology and disease management.
Primary target of this study is to give an orientation about the atmospheric contamination caused mainly due to airborne heavy metals, sourced naturally or by anthropogenic activities. Further, an attempt is made to lay down a basic idea about the wide use of bryophytes as good bio-indicators or bio-monitors of heavy metals in the atmosphere due to their simple morphological and physiological characteristics. Bio-monitoring has become one of the main focuses of researchers and the scientific community, as they are very helpful in providing valuable toxicological data of the environment, its impact on the ecological system, and risk assessment and further help to devise a mechanism to fight against and mitigate its adverse effect.
In recent years, environmental pollution has had a substantial impact on the hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Today's environmental difficulties result in contamination of soil, water, and other natural resources of the Earth as a result of the release of dangerous chemicals from multiple manmade sources, resulting in a loss of soil productivity, available drinking water, pure air, and so on. Many efforts have been made, and continue to be undertaken, to reduce pollution sources and restore degraded land and water resources. More than 400 plant species, including Brassica, Vetiveria, Lemna, etc. have been identified as effective targets for soil and water remediation. Phytoremediation is a method of cleaning contaminated soils and water by employing plant species. Many enterprises in developing countries like India release untreated toxins into the environment, causing significant soil and water pollution. This article discusses the present state of phytoremediation in India.
Downy mildew is a common problem in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill] which grown in field conditions but is rarely seen in greenhouses. Soybean downy mildew, caused by fungus-like organism Peronospora manshurica (Class Oomycetes; Phylum Oomycota), is a widely spread disease and can survive in crop residues and on the seed surfaces. P. manshurica has zoospores (flagellate motile spores) and needs water or high humidity for infection. Spores are carried onto plants by wind and rain and infection can spread quickly through a field during periods of cool, wet, or high humid weather. P. manshurica produces saclike sporangia carried on sporangiophores emerge from the stomata of the lower surface of the leaves. On the upper surface of the leaves, they will have pale green to light yellow spots. As the spots enlarge, they become pale yellow and of irregular size and shape and may enlarge to lesions. In moist weather, a pale blue to gray downy growth of the mildew fungus appears on the lower surface of the leaves, directly opposite the lesions on the upper side of the leaves. The disease rarely causes serious damage to soybean, but some reports revealed that the disease reduced seed size and quality if present early in the season and at high levels. The objective of this technical document is to study soybean downy mildew: symptoms and signs, causal agent, epidemiology, disease development, disease cycle, ecology and disease management.
Nutrition is an important factor for the good function of the human body. The man constantly strives to receive natural food as safe food, and such are the natural fruit berries. They contain large amounts of antioxidants, compounds that stabilize highly reactive potentially dangerous molecules called free radicals. Free radicals are harmful molecules formed in the body during normal cellular metabolism or are the result of certain metabolisms in the human body. Free radicals have been linked to damage to membranes, enzymes and DNA. This review focuses on some data on antioxidants, such as vitamins and macro and micro nutrients in fruit, berries (Chemical Composition of Berries and bioactive compounds-BAC), Cranberry, Blueberries, Strawberries, Goji Berries, Raspberries, that act to protect against certain diseases related to the human immune system. A diet with berries that contain natural antioxidants can lower free radical levels, so supplementing the diet with antioxidants and vitamins also protects the immune system response. Important is that the antioxidants in fruit, berries enhance the immune system in the human organism and protected from any significance diseases.
The present communication constitutes an updated review on analgesic activity of the various plants which are found in different areas of the world. This article will be useful to the people for their primary healthcare. Various medications including peripheral or centrally acting NSAID’s, morphine, and aspirin are used to treat pain sensation. However, at present NSAID’s and opiates are not much useful in all cases because of their low potency, presence of various side effects, and their drug dependence properties. Medicinal herbs are safe and secure route in the treatment of pain as they have potent analgesic activity. Various methods like the hot plate method, tail-flick method, acetic acid-induced writhing test, and tail immersion method in hot and cold water, formalin test are used to detect the analgesic activity of various plants using ethanol, methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, and/or aqueous extracts of the entire plant or any particular part of the plant.
In the last few decades use of traditional drugs has led to the popularization of herbal drugs because of their lesser side effects. This has led to the exploitation of the natural origin of many traditional plants for their pharmacological activities. Alhagi maurorum one such traditional plant contains fatty acids, flavonoids, coumarins, sterols, vitamins and alkaloids which shows anti-viral, anti-bacterial, diuretic, purgative, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer, antidiarrheal, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-depressant, analgesic and other pharmacological activities. The present review is to highlight the phytoconstituents, pharmacological effect and uses of Alhagi maurorum over various diseases.