##### COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF Bryophyllum pinnatum AND Newbouldia laevis ON CLINICAL ISOLATES FROM WOUND INFECTION

EMMANUEL TOBECHUKWU UGWUOJI, EBELE LINDA OKOYE, CHUKWUEBUKA MARYVIN EZEOKOLI, PRISCA AMALA OKOYE

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 23-32

Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum and Newbouldia laevis are plant species that have been used in traditional herbal medicine for internal and external treatments in Nigeria. While Bryophyllum pinnatum has been applied in the treatments of burns and scalds, boils, abscesses, gastric ulcers, wound, insect bites, lithiasis, edema of leg and other diseases, Newbouldia laevis  has medicinal value ranging from anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungi, analgesic and wound healing properties.

Aim of the Study: To isolate bacterial organisms from wounds, and to comparatively screen the in vitro antibacterial activities of the extracts from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Newbouldia laevis on the clinical isolates from wound infection.

Materials and Methods: Solvents used in leave extraction include ethanol, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested against five organisms; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus species, and Corynebacterium species isolated from wounds. Phytochemical analyses of the plant extracts were also carried out using standard methods. Disc diffusion was used to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to the extracts while broth dilution methods were used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC).

Results: Results showed that the five test organisms had varied degree of susceptibility to the extracts. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella species were the most susceptible to the extracts with zones of inhibition ranging between 6.0 to 10.0mm and 6.5 to 9.0mm respectively at concentration of 100mg/ml while Bacillus species was the least susceptible with inhibition zone diameter of 6.0 to 7.0mm at the same concentration. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ranged between 6.25 to 50mg/ml of the concentrations while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration occurred at 50mg/ml for ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. The extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum had higher activity than extracts of Newbouldia laevis prepared in the same way.

Conclusions: The results suggest that extracts of both plants were broad spectrum in activity and has great potential in effective treatment of wound infections.

##### INTERACTIVE IMPACT OF COMPOST AND BIOCHAR ON INDIGENOUS ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI AND OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) PRODUCTION

RANIA EL HILALI, MARIYEM REHALI, MOHAMED OU-ZINE, SAID EL KINANY, LAHCEN OUAHMANE, RACHID BOUAMRI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 33-42

Few studies have examined the impact of the effect of organic amendments on indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and okra growth. Our greenhouse experiment investigated the effect of compost or biochar amendments, and their combination, on AMF colonization of okra roots inoculated or not with indigenous AMF consortium inoculant using a completely randomized block design. The results showed that the inoculation of plant with indigenous AMF and the application of both compost and biochar significantly increased the colonization frequency and intensity up to 94% and 45.9%, respectively. The plant height and stem diameter were improved and reached 68.5 cm and 10.2 mm, respectively for treatment combining AMF inoculation, compost, and biochar application, against 21.5 cm and 3.5 mm, respectively for control. Fresh and dry weight of roots reached 38.7 and 28.03 g/plant, respectively for plants amended with biochar. Plants inoculated with AMF and amended with both compost and biochar showed fresh and dry weights of 30.5 and 23.3 g/plant. The highest okra yields were recorded with the treatment combining the AMF inoculation and compost application, followed by the treatment combining the AMF inoculation, compost, and biochar application. Therefore, these synergies between compost, biochar, and AMF may help farmers to increase the colonization of indigenous AMF strains in okra roots and consequently their abundance in the soil and to improve okra growth and yield.

##### SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AFFECT DEVELOPMENT OF Cedrus atlantica M.

BELKACEM EL AMRANI, MOHAMMED BENDRISS AMRAOUI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 43-50

Soil microbial communities (SMC) play a key role in plant responses to environmental changes, particularly in cedar forest ecosystems, but the ecological and physiological effects of the microflora on cedrus atlantica are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the dependence of cedar on natural soil microflora. The results showed that the Taz soil, compared to the other soils, stimulates the dry weight (DW) and decreases the root density of seedlings. In contrast to this, the dry weight responses to the enrichment are negative on Taz soil, but root density and tertiary root numbers are significantly increased. In native soil, Pearson test shows that the dry weight of cedar needles and stem are positively related to total microflora but that of the main root and secondary roots (R2) are negatively linked to fungi. On the other hand, yeast and actinomycetes are negatively correlated with R2 abundance. The present study discusses for the first time the effect resulting from the interaction between native microflora of forest cedar soil on growth of C. atlantica seedlings.

##### ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ROOTS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE IN NIGERIA

ONISODUMEYA E. JAMES, BLESSING O. GREEN, MERCY G. AJURU, V. WILSON

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 51-55

This study has documented the root anatomical variability of some species of Euphorbiaceae in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, as a means of providing information for quality assessment of herbal industry.  Family Euphorbiaceae is also called spurge family consisting of about 322 genera and 7,700 species. Species are predominantly cosmopolitan with strongest representation in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae family are widely used in Nigeria for various medicinal purposes. Based on this, seven species were selected for study from four genera which includes: genus Acalypha – A. hispidia and A. wilkesiana, genus Euphorbia – E. heterophylla and E. hirta, genus Jatropha – J. curcas and J. gossipifolia and the genus Manihot – M. esculenta. Transverse sections of the roots were obtained by free hand sectioning and submitted to double staining with methylene blue and safranin process for the anatomical study. Anatomical results of the roots revealed much variability among the species. Root characters such as the nature of the epiblema, cortex and vascular tissues are of high taxonomic significance. The secondary root has peridermis, parenchymatic cortex, collateral vascular system surrounded by sclerenchyma. The anatomical features are useful for dif­ferentiation among the species. This study will be helpful in correct identification and standardization of the plant material which is of medicinal importance.

##### WATER BEHAVIOR FOR SOME WHEAT VARIETIES UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS IN THE NORTH MIDDLE NILE DELTA REGION

A. M. EL-GHAMRY, E. M. EL-HADIDI, E. A. MOURSI, FATMA, H. ELSAYED

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 56-65

Lysimeters dimensions (80 cm in width and 80 cm in length) investigation was conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, during the two successive winter growing seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 to investigate, the effect of water deficit conditions on yield, some yield attributes, and some water relations. A split plot design was used in this present study, where, the main plots were randomly assigned by irrigation treatments which were I1: irrigation by traditional practice as performed by farmers in the studied area, I2: irrigation by 90% from water requirements, I3: irrigation by 80% from water requirements and I4: irrigation by 70% from water requirements. While sub main plots were randomly assigned by wheat varieties which were V1: Sids -14, V2: Giza-171, V3: Gemaza-12 and V4: Misr-2.

The Main Results can be Summarized as Follows: The highest amount of seasonal applied water was recorded under irrigation treatment I1 and the value is 2100 m3/fed, the lowest value was recorded under irrigation treatment I4 and the value is 1470 m3/fed. I4 recorded the highest values for productivity of irrigation water which is (1.96 kg/m3) and as an overall average of the two seasons. The results indicated that the highest values for grain yield was recorded by irrigation treatment I3 with values of 3.96 and 3.00 ton/fed the same trend was observed for other yield attributes.

##### ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PALM WINE YEASTS AND A COMPARISON OF THEIR DOUGH-RAISING ACTIVITY WITH BAKER’S YEAST

C. C. EZEMBA, V. T. ONYEMALU, A. C. NWANYA, E. OGBONNA, A. S. EZEMBA, V. N. Anakwenze, G. C. ANAUKWU, P. O. OKOYE, F. J. C. ODIBO

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 66-72

Yeast isolates from fresh palm wine sample in Ugbawka, Enugu state were screened for dough- raising activity. The function of yeast flora of palm wine in leavening was explored by subjecting organisms from the wine to dough-raising tests. The yeasts isolates, tentatively identified as Saccharomyces sp, were compared with a commercial baker’s yeast for their dough-raising properties. Out of four yeast isolates, two of them were recovered as biological dough raisers. The result showed that isolates two and four has the highest dough-raising activity of 12cm3 and 11.60cm3, while isolate three produced the lowest dough raising activity when compared with baker’s yeast that gave a value of 8.40cm3. This study indicates that palm wine yeasts have good properties for raising dough in bread-making and can be exploited for commercial use.

##### ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENT STATUS IN DATE PALM PLANTATION SOILS OF MODIBBO ADAMA UNIVERSITY, YOLA ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

A. A. GUJJA, E. E. DISHAN, Y. NASIRU

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 73-83

This research assessed nutrient status, in soil of date palm plantation of Modibbo Adama University, Yola Adamawa State. Parameters evaluated included; data on nutrient status of soils, based on growth performances of the date palm. The plantation was divided into three according to growth variabilities high, medium and low. Fifteen (15) auger points were taken, five (5) in each performance site based on the corresponding variability as observed. Soil samples were collected within same points for physicochemical analysis. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare results of nutrient status of soils and to test for significant differences in nutrient concentration of the soils samples, mean separation was done using Least Significant Difference (LSD).  The highest value for soil physical parameters in the growth sites were; sand 86.4%; silt 17.8%; clay 22.8%; BD 1.64g/cm3; PD 2.73g/cm3 porosity 46% and WHC was 12.1%. Similarly, the highest value for soil chemical parameters in the growth sites were; pH 7.0, EC 0.60dS/m, OC 1.011%, OM 1.743%, TN 0.174%. AvP 12.637 ppm, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, TEB TEA, ECEC and PBS highest values were; 5.212, 3.160, 0.957, 0.872, 9.186, 3.700,11.688 Cmol/Kg and 82.121% respectively. Analysis of variance for the soil parameters tested at (P ≤ 0.05) level of significance showed no significant differences in all the parameters of soil physical properties. However, Organic carbon, Organic matter and TN vary significantly after the Post-hoc tests across growth performance sites in chemical properties (p ≤ 0.05). The finding of this study revealed that there was no significant difference among the physical properties across the study site leading to the conclusion that soil physical properties may not have been responsible for the observed differences in the growth of the Date Palm in the plantation. A different pattern was however observed in the values of the chemical properties of the plantation where significant differences exist in Organic carbon, Organic matter and total Nitrogen across these sites which may perhaps be responsible for the observed differences in growth of the plants.

##### EFFECT OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON SEED GERMINATION AND EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF SWEET ORANGE (Citrus sinensis (L). OSBECK) AND LIME (Citrus aurantifolia SWINGLE)

VICTORIA WILSON

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 84-92

This study to investigate the effects of priming duration in 10% bleach (NaOCl) on seed germination and early seedling growth of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (l) Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) was conducted in the screen house of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The experimental design was a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with 6 replications and 10 treatments as follows: sweet orange seeds primed in 10% bleach for 10mins, 20mins, 30mins; in water for 30mins and unprimed (control) as well as lime seeds primed in 10% bleach for 10mins, 20mins, 30mins; in water for 30mins and unprimed (control). Five seeds each of sweet orange and lime were sown at a depth of 0.5cm in rectangular transparent plastic containers (size = 16 x 10 x 5cm) filled with loamy soil. Data collected were number of days to first and last seedling emergence, percent germination/ emergence, seedling height, number of leaves per seedling. Seedling vigour index (SVI) was calculated. There were significant differences (P = .05) in time to first seedling emergence (10 – 20 days), last seedling emergence days after sowing (29 - 34, DAS), in percentage germination (30 – 90%) and seedling vigour index (8.82) of sweet orange and lime (5.46.). Lime and sweet orange seeds soaked in 10% bleach for 10minutes emerged 10DAS and 20DAS respectively. On average across the treatments, time to last seedling emergence was 34DAS for sweet orange and 29DAS for lime. There were no significant differences in seedling height and number of leaves. Sweet orange and lime soaked in 10% bleach solution for 20mins gave the highest percentage germination and seedling vigour index and is recommended.

##### ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PULSE CROPS UNDER MANGO ORCHARD IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF BANGLADESH

MD. MAHBUBUR RAHMAN, MD. RASHEDUL ISLAM, MD. RASHIDUL ALAM, RAZI UDDIN, MD. OMAR FARUQ

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 102-107

The field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, BARI, Rahmatpur, Barishal during the Rabi and Late Rabi season of 2020-21 to select the most appropriate pulse crop(s) for growing under mango orchard, to increase the cropping intensity to maximize the productivity as well as farmers income of southern region of Bangladesh. The treatments of the experiment consists of T1= Mango + Grasspea (Var. BARI Kheshari-3), T2= Mango + Blackgram (Var. BARI Mash-3), T3= Mango + Mung bean (Var. BARI Mung-6), T4= Mango + Cowpea (Var. BARI Felon-1), T5= Mango + Field pea (Var. BARI Motor-3). On November 26, 2021, all pulses except mung bean seeds were sowed using the line sowing method in a mango grove. On January 28, 2021, mung bean seeds were planted. Mung bean seeds were sown on 28 January, 2021. Experimental results revealed that different pulse crops had significant effect on growing under mango orchard. The highest yield of BARI Motor-3 was obtained in T5 treatment (1843.7 kg/ha). The lowest yield of BARI Mash-3 was obtained from T2 (360.1 kg/ha). The economic analysis results showed that the highest (Tk. 73748/ha) in treatment T5 (BARI Motor-3). The lowest gross return (Tk. 14404/ha) was found in treatment T2 (BARI Mash-3). Similarly, the gross margin was found to be the highest (Tk. 43848/ha) treatment T5 (BARI Motor-3). Treatment T2 (BARI Mash-3) produced negative gross margin (Tk. -5596/ha). The value of benefit cost ratio (BCR) revealed that the highest (2.46) in treatment T5 (BARI Motor-3). The BCR value in treatment T2 (BARI Mash-3) had the lowest (0.72). Treatment T5, also known as BARI Motor-3 could be cultivated as most appropriate component crops under mango orchard in southern region of Bangladesh.

##### FLORA OF RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA: A PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST

MERCY GOSPEL AJURU, ASIKIYE IBIYE, ESEOGHENE CYNTHIA PRINCEWILL-UKOT

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 116-135

The importance of plants in the environment is highly pronounced. They help in soil fertility, conservation, they hold the soil together, thereby preventing erosion. They also provide water, food, construction materials, windbreak, shade and aesthetic uses. An inventory of the plants in the University campus was undertaken to determine their family, genus and species compositions and thereby generate their checklist. Methods followed conventional practice as reported by previous authors of related studies. A total of three hundred and thirty-three (333) plants species belonging to two hundred and twenty- three (223) genera and eighty (80) families were identified and recorded. The most diverse families were the grasses, of the Poaceae family, consisting of 41 species and 26 genera, followed by the Asteraceae (29 species in 23 genera), Fabaceae (23 species in 16 genera), Cyperaceae (23 species in 7 genera), Euphorbiaceae (15 species in 8 genera), Lamiaceae (14 species in 9 genera), Amaranthaceae (11 species in 4 genera), Moraceae (10 species in 3 genera). Other families present had fewer species with fewer genera. Herbs (65.5%) were the dominant plant habit, followed by trees (17.7%), Shrubs (13.8%), Ferns (2.40%) and Liana (0.60%). The most dominant life form was the perennials (67.27%, followed by the annuals (29.73%) and annual/perennial (3.00) plants. This is the first comprehensive inventory/check list of plants present in the Rivers State University of Port Harcourt. With the continuous developmental activities, practical conservation approaches is ideal if the study area is to be saved from total loss of species.

##### THE SPACING EFFECTS ON POTATO TUBER SEED YIELD IN FARTA DISTRICT, NORTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

BIRKIE TSEGA, MEKONNEN ASRAT, MELKAMU ALEMAYEHU

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 136-149

This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum row spacing of potato variety (CIP-393371.58) to seed tuber production in Farta District. Factorial combinations of three intra-row (25, 30 and 35cm) and four inter-row spacing (50, 60, 70 and 80 cm) treatments were laid out in RCBD with three replications. All phenological, growth and yield parameters were significantly affected by the main effects of intra and inter-row spacing while, fresh weight, average tuber weight, marketable tuber yield, unmarketable tuber yield, small size tuber weight and medium size tuber weight were highly significantly affected by their interaction effect. The optimum seed tuber, marketable tuber number per hill, total tuber number per hill, marketable tuber yield, total tuber yield and tuber yield and harvest index was obtained on 25cm intra-row spacing and 60 cm inter-row spacing planted potato. However, the economic analysis indicated that the highest marketable tuber yield (37.26 tha-1) was observed on25x60 cm intra-row and inter-row spacing crop. Whereas the lowest marketable and profitable yield was recorded at 25x50 and 35x70 cm intra-row and inter-row spacing, respectively. However, the highest net benefit was obtained from 25x60 cm spacing.  Therefore, based on the finding of this study, it can be concluded that, high marketable, economically feasible and optimum Belete seed potato was obtained by planting potato at 25 cm intra-row and 60 cm inter-row spacing.

##### GC-MS ANALYSIS AND NUTRACEUTICAL POTENTIALS OF THE BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF THREE EDIBLE COCOYAMS (XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM, XANTHOSOMA VIOLACEUM AND COLOCASIA ESCULENTA)

SAMUEL C. ONUOHA, REGINALD C. OHIRI, ERESIYA A. DIRI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 150-157

##### ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY ON MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN SHASHEMENE DISTRICT, WEST ARSI ZONE OF OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA

TEGENU MEKURIA, HIRPA ABDURO

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 158-170

Ethiopia is a country characterized by a wide range of climate and ecological conditions, possesses enormous diversity of fauna and flora. An ethnobothanical study was carried out to document information on the use of medicinal plants by local communities in Shashamane district, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The main method of study was semi-structured interview and discussion with informants from among Shashamane elders and healers. A total of 125 plants species belonging to 59 families were identified for their medicinal value, 45 species (36%) were Tree, 37 species (30%) were Herbs and 35 species (28%) were shrubs. Very few climbers 8 species; (6%) are used in the local traditional medical practices. The result shows plant species belonging to the families Fabaceae and Lamiaceae are most used. A total of 89 (71.2%) plant species are used for treatment of human ailments and 15 (12%) species are used for treatment of Livestock diseases and 21 (16.8%) species are used for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. About 66 (52.8%) and 22 (17.6%) of the reported medicinal plants are taken orally and dermal respectively. Most of the plant species are wild, which is 79 plant species (63.2%) and 15 plant species (12%) are cultivated, and 21 species (16.8%) are both wild and cultivated which indicate that local people have little practice of bringing medicinal plants under cultivation. The prepared traditional drugs are administered through different routes of administration. The major routes of administration in the study area include; oral, dermal, nasal, Tooth and ocular. Oral administration is the dominant route (52.2%) followed by dermal route (27.6%). Some of the medicinal plant species were in the study area have multiple uses such as fuel wood, construction, overgrazing and charcoal production, and thus  these plants are found under threats. The threats of medicinal plant species is main reason to the loss of the associated knowledge. It is therefore, recommended that interventions that promote traditional medicinal practices and those that help conservation of medicinal plants and local knowledge should be undertaken.

##### AMELIORATIVE POTENTIALS OF DICHLOROMETHANE EXTRACT OF Musa acuminata LATUNDAN BRACT IN INDOMETHACIN ADMINISTERED WISTAR RATS

B. A. AMADI, R. BELLO, R. C. OHIRI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 171-184

In this study, the ameliorative potentials of dichloromethane extract of Musa acuminata Latundan bract was investigated in Wistar rats administered indomethacin. A single oral dose of 40mg/kg body weight indomethacin was administered to forty five adult male Wistar rats (120-180g) in five groups of nine rats each. The bioactive components of dichloromethane extract of the sample was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Faecal occult blood tests (FOB) of animals were carried out using immunochromatographic sandwich methods. Thereafter, concentrations of 100mg, 150mg and 200mg/kg bodyweights dichloromethane extract of M. acuminata Latundan bract were administered to the animals for three weeks. Effect on some biochemical indices, hematological indices as well as histopathology of kidney, stomach and liver were analysed. GC-MS analyses showed n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid and 9-Octadecanoic acid as the predominant compounds in the sample analysed. FOB tests were positive (+) at week 0 and week one, then negative (-) at weeks two and three in all treated groups. Serum levels of Aspartate-aminotransferase, Alanine-aminotransferase, Alkaline-phosphatase, creatinine and urea showed a dose-dependent decrease significantly at (p≤ 0.05) in treated groups (66.33+1.00 u/l, 43.66+1.15 u/l, 68.67 +1.15 u/l, 170.00 +1.77 umol/l and 8.11+0.03 mmol/l) compared to the untreated control (72.33+0.42 u/l, 56.33+0.60 u/l, 75.33+1.16 u/l, 194.33+0.60 umol/l and 9.97+0.15 mmol/l) respectively. A significant dose-dependent increase (p≤ 0.05) in packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red blood count was also observed in treated groups when compared to the untreated control. Kidney, stomach and liver tissues showed normal histology in treated groups. Findings from this study revealed that the dichloromethane extract of M. acuminata Latundan showed dose-dependent ameliorative potentials and non-impairment of hepatorenal function in Wistar rats administered indomethacin.

##### RESPONSE OF RED CABBAGE PLANTS TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN WITH FOLIAR APPLICATION OF METHIONINE UNDER SOIL ADDITION OF ZEOLITE AMENDMENT

M. A. EL-SHERPINY, DINA A. GHAZI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 196-207

The excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers, as well as their high prices, make us think about reducing their application rates. So, a field trial was performed to determine the effect of zeolite amendment treatments as main plots [without zeolite (control) and zeolite addition at rate of 10.0 ton fed-1) and nitrogen fertilization at different rates [100, 75.0 and 50.0 % of Nitrogen Recommended Dose (NRD) as ammonium nitrate (33.5%N) ] as subplots and external application of methionine as sub-subplots [once in the presence of amino acid (at rate of 2.0 mg L-1) and other  in the absence of amino acid] on the performance of red cabbage plant and soil fertility after harvest.

The main results of the current study can be summarized as follows:

1. The combined treatment of zeolite amendment and 75% of NRD (either in the presence or in absence of methionine) recorded red cabbage performance better than that under treatment of 100% of NRD without both zeolite and methionine.
2. Also, zeolite amendment possessed a positive effect on some studied soil properties i.e. CEC, porosity and available N at harvest stage.

Generally, it can be concluded that both zeolite and methionine have a vital role in improving red cabbage productivity. Moreover, it can be said that zeolite amendment possess an important role in reducing the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizers.

##### EFFECT OF BRANCH PRUNING WITH REMOVAL OF OLD LEAF ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BRINJAL UNDER THREE WINTER VARIETIES

AMINA KHANOM, TAHMINA MOSTARIN, KHALEDA KHATUN, MD. RAFEZ AHMED, SUFIA AKTER, MST ARJUARA SUMI, MD. TOUHIDUJJAMAN, MD. RAFI KHAN

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 208-218

The experiment was conducted in the Horticultural Farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Branch pruning and old leaf removal as P0= Control, P1= Old leaf removal, P2= Lateral branch pruning, P3= Old leaf removal and lateral branch pruning and Factor B: 3 varieties of brinjal as V1= BARI Begun-4, V2= BARI Begun-7, V3= BARI Begun-10. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. For pruning, the highest number of flower (38.87), the maximum number of fruit per plant (27.83) and the highest yield (49.73 t/ha) were recorded from P3 treatment, while the minimum were from P0 treatment. In case of variety, the maximum number of flower (41.23), the highest number of fruit harvested per plant (29.23) and the highest yield (52.83 t/ha) were found from V1 treatment, whereas the lowest from V2 treatment. Due to combined effect, the maximum number of flower (49.20), the maximum number of fruit harvested per plant (33.64), the highest yield (55.70 t/ha) were recorded from P3V1. So, it can be concluded that ‘BARI Begun-4’ with lateral branch pruning and old leaf removal gave the maximum yield. The highest gross return (1002600), highest net return (679649) and highest benefit cost ratio (3.1) were obtained from P3V1 (Old leaf removal and lateral branch pruning) treatment combination. So, the economic analysis revealed that the P3V1 treatment combination appeared to be the best for achieving  the higher growth, yield and economic benefit of brinjal.

##### GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AMONG SOME BARLEY GENOTYPES USING MULTIVARIABLE AND MOLECULAR MARKERS UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOIL SALINITY STRESS

SAMAH A. MARIEY, ZEINAB, E. GHAREEB, ALAA M. E. A. SHAHEIN, AHMED M. I. MELEHA, HEBA A. GOMAA, ASMAA M. S. RADY, ISMAEL A. KHATAB

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 219-236

In Egypt, around 60% of cultivated lands of Northern Delta region are considered soil salinity areas. A two-year three field experiments were carried out to evaluate six Egyptian Barley genotypes under different soil salinity levels (4 , 8 and 12 dSm-1) during two consecutive seasons 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 using agro-morphological,  germination percentage, seedling vigor, grain quality, stress indices, multivariable analysis and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) marker. Increasing salinity level from (4 to 12 dSm-1) diminished the performance of all measured traits; however increasing protein content reached to 15.39% and heading data was quickens by 5.44% with strong and negative relationship with grain yield. Six salt stress indices were calculated based on grain yield; results showed that mean productivity (MP), harmonic Mean (HM) and stress tolerance index (STI) were more effective indices for detecting the high yielding genotypes. Ten ISSR primers were used to assess the genetic diversity among all genotypes; all primers showed high average percentage of polymorphic loci was 81.6%. The ISSR (UBC 835) primer generate the highest band number, polymorphism, polymorphism information content (PIC), effective multiplex ratio (EMR), diversity index (DI),), resolving power (RP), and marker index MI values were (8,100%, 0.50, 0.43, 5.80 3.20 and 0.88) respectively. Furthermore, ISSR (UBC 835) primer had amplified specific allele with molecular size 800 bp found in the tolerance cultivars (Line 4 and Giza 137) indicating that this primer is highly informative as a positive marker for salt tolerance. The heatmap cluster constructed using Euclidean distance and average linkage based on 12 phenotypic traits, seven salt tolerance indices and 10 ISSR primers showing that the six Barley genotypes were clustered into two main clusters, each cluster include the most closed genotypes together based on their response to salinity stress which could be used future in salinity breeding programs for high yield production under salinity soil areas in Egypt.

##### WOODY SPECIES COMPOSITION AND COMMUNITY ANALYSIS OF EZANITULA FOREST IN CHENCHA WOREDA, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

TEGENU MEKURIA, YORDANOS GERMAME

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 237-246

A study was conducted on Ezanitula (Nagasa Sacred) Natural Forest in Chencha Woreda, South west of Ethiopia, to conclude the Woody species composition and community type of the forest. A systematic sampling method was used to gather data from 36 quadrats (20m x 20m) established on four belt transects. All woody plants in the stands were counted and recorded as present. A total of forty- six plant specimens (31 trees, 11 shrubs, and 4 lianas) and each plant species belonging to 40 genera and 30 families were recognized. Asteraceae is the most dominant family followed by Euphorbiaceae and Rosaceae in terms of the number of species. Vernonia is the diverse genera followed by Scheflera and Maytnus. Four plant community types were identified. To detect similarities and dissimilarities among communities, Sorensen’s similarity coefficient was used and applied Shannon-Wiener diversity index to enumerate species diversity and richness. The woody species composition and community type status showed that irregular pattern which dictates need for serious conservation of the study area. Sacred forests are a hot spot of biodiversity conservation since it is a home of many rare, endangered, threatened, and endemic species of plants found in an area. This study revealed that numbers of valuable plant species are found in forest, and if conservation measures are not practiced in the near future there may be a great loss of plant genetic resources and other associated components of biodiversity.

##### PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS

OMNIA, S. M. HASHEM, KHALED IBRAHIM GAD

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 247-261

Water deficiency in plant impairs the numerous physiological and metabolic functions. Selection of wheat genotypes that can tolerate water deficiency would be helpful tools for breeding program aiming to develop drought tolerant variety under water limited regions. Four wheat genotypes i.e (Misr 1, shandweel1, line 1 and line 2) were grown under four water regimes i.e 2400m3/fad (Wet), 2100m3/fad (Moist), 1800m3/fad (Medium) and 1500m3/fad (Dry) in wiry greenhouse at Giza Agricultural Research Station, (30.0204508, 31.2067921) ARC, during the two winter growing seasons of 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to evaluate two promising line compared to two commercial wheat cultivar under water deficit. Important physiological traits of specific leaf area (SLA), crop growth rate (CGR), relative water content (RWC), stomatal resistance (SR), transpiration rate (TR), Photosynthetic pigments, Proline, total phenolic and glycine betaine, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were studied. Results showed highly significant difference among wheat genotypes in all studied traits. The superior line1 indicated higher growth parameters, SLA, CGR, RWC, SR, Photosynthetic pigments, Proline, total phenolic and glycine betaine and showed decline in MDA and TR under1500m3/fad (Dry). These traits are recognized as beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selecting tolerant genotypes. Similarly, grain yield t/ha, straw yield t/ha, total soluble protein in grain, water productivity and harvest index of the same wheat genotype were also higher. I could be used as a good source for drought tolerant criteria in wheat breeding program.

##### EFFECT OF PRE-SOWING MAGNETIC TREATMENT OF MAIZE SEEDS ON ITS PRODUCTIVITY AND ON SOME SOIL PROPERTIES

A. K. ABDEL FATTAH, M. A. ESMAEIL

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 262-272

This work aims to study the effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments of maize seeds (Zea mays L.) cultivar Triple hybrid 310 on its productivity and on some soil properties under different levels of mineral N-P-K fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted at a private farm at El-Menoufia Governorate, Egypt during two successive summer seasons (2020 and 2021) in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plots were the time of magnetic treatment of seeds (control, 5 min., 10 min. and 15 min.), while the sub-plots were the application rates of N-P-K fertilizers (50, 75 and 100% of recommended doses). The results showed that using magnetic treatments of seeds were better compared to the control treatments, it significantly increased the contents of N, P and K in plant and soil as well as total yield of maize, while reduced the soil pH and EC values. Also there were a relative increases by 3.98 , 15.89 and 23.37% for plant height (cm), 9.84 , 22.92 and 49.94% for weight of 100 grains, 16.51 , 36.79 and 50.94% for weight of ear yield (ton/fed), 20.14 , 40.96 and 54.26 % for straw yield (ton/fed) and 40.41 , 44.52 and 51.37% for grains yield (ton/fed), respectively for seeds treated with magnetic field for 5 min., 10 min. and 15 min., respectively, as compared to control. Also, there were significant differences in the values of yield parameters between the rates of fertilizers application (50 , 75 and 100% of recommended doses). Therefore, it can categorize the beneficial effects of the used magnetic field into different orders according the increases in maize yield parameters, as follows: 15 min. >10 min. > 5 min. > control.

##### BIOLOAD, ECOTOXICITY AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF PAINT INDUSTRIES’ EFFLUENT CONTAMINATED SITES IN ABA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

UGOCHUKWU CHUKWUMA OKAFOR, DAVID NWACHUKWU UMENEANYA, FRANKLIN OBINNA UMEOZOR

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 277-287

The pollution index of paint industry effluent contaminated sites in Aba was evaluated. Soil samples were collected from two locations each of Six(6) respective paint industries, one from the paint-effluent contaminated site(PECS) and the other collected 1.0 km away from the contaminated sites, used as control(US). The bioload level was assayed, physicochemical properties determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS) and  the Ecotoxicity evaluated using a selected agricultural plant, Cucumber seeds(Cucumis sativus). The bacterial and fungal counts for all the samples were statistically significant across the weeks upto the 24th week (p< 0.05). The fungi isolated from the unpolluted soils include Fusarium sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicilium spp. Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus fumigates while the bacterial isolates include Pseudomonas putida, Serratia spp., Flavobacterium spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and Klebsiella spp. The bacterial isolates from the polluted soil include Pseudomonas putida, Serratia spp., Flavobacterium spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Arthrobacter spp. while the fungi from the polluted soil (PECS) include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula species, Rhizopus species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillum funiculosum, Geotrichum candidum and Pichia kudriavzevii. The results show near acidic pH values for the polluted sites(PECS) while slight alkalinity was observed in the control(US). The concentrations of zinc, total nitrogen, total organic carbon and electrical conductivity levels had a significant statistical difference across the samples through the bioattenuation period at p< 0.05. The ecotoxicity assay revealed growth of the Cucumber seeds(Cucumis sativus) after 10 days of germination but significantly in the unpolluted soil(US) samples. There was little and/no growth in the polluted samples(PECS) cultivated. Unpolluted soils enhanced germination of the Cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) compared to the PECS after 6days of germination. This study shows that paint effluent contaminated sites examined when compared to the pristine soils, contain pathogenic microorganisms that thrive in the contaminated sites and constitute pollution problems that in turn can pose some health challenges to the inhabitants, contain some heavy metals that are toxic at high concentrations which renders most agricultural plants inactive.

##### POLLUTION AND SEDIMENTARY CHANGE ALONG A CORE FROM THE SUBTIDAL OF THE COAST OF SFAX, SOUTHEASTERN TUNISIA

ELHOUCINE ESSEFI, SOUMAYA HAJJI, SANA BEDOUI

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 288-293

This work aimed to study changes in the near surface sediment of the subtidal of the coast of Sfax along a 154 cm core to set the limit of the Anthropocene. To obtain 77 samples, sampling was done every 2 cm. The magnetic susceptibility measurement along the core recuperated from the subtidal of Sfax coast displays clear upward increase due to high amount of heavy metals. In addition, clay, silt sand percentages argue an increase of the sediment flux recorded in many sedimentary sites during the Anthropocene. The grain size fining allows the concentration of heavy metals. The studies around the world showed that the Anthropocene limit is regionally dependent. This makes the adoption of the Anthropocene as a standalone geological subdivision not defended by geologists.

##### IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE AND YIELD QUALITY OF POTATO PLANT VIA FOLIAR APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT BORON RATES AND DIFFERENT POTASSIUM SOURCES

M. A. EL-SHERPINY, MARWA A. KANY, NOHA R. IBRAHIM

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 294-304

It is known that potassium (K) and boron (B) elements play a vital role as sizing agents for potato tubers. Awareness of the role of K and B elements as well as the good management of their fertilization process for potato crops can prompt optimized fertilization approaches for higher returns.  Thus, this research paper aimed to assess the effect of  foliar application of  K at rate of 750 mg K2O L-1 via different K sources [control (without K foliar application), potassium sulphate (K2SO4, 48.0 % K2O), potassium humate (10.0%K2O), potassium silicate (K2SiO3, 60.0 %K) and potassium citrate (K3C6H5O7, 45.0 % K2O)] as  main plots and foliar application of B which added as boric acid (H3BO3, 17.0 % B) at three rates [0.0 (control), 40.0 and 80.0 mg L-1) as sub main plots on performance and yield quality of potato plant during two successive seasons of 2020/2021 and 2021/2022. The findings indicate that potato plants sprayed with potassium silicate had the best performance and yield quality compared to that treated with other K sources, while untreated plants recorded the lowest performance and yield quality. Potassium citrate came in the second order followed by potassium humate then potassium sulphate form. Regarding B foliar application, the performance and yield quality of potato plants increased as the rate of B increased. In other words, the best performance and yield quality for potato plants were recorded under combined treatment of potassium silicate and B at rate of 80.0 mgL-1. Generally, it can be concluded that potassium silicate form is the fastest and best form of potassium in potency and absorption inside the plant to stimulate and activate vital processes, increase the percentage of solids in tuber crops and sizing via spraying. As well as foliar application of B at rate of 80.0 mgL-1 causes the transfer of most of the sugars and carbohydrates from the vegetative mass to the tubers.

##### ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF Cissus aralioides (Welw. ex Baker) Planch. AND Cissus polyantha Gilg & Brandt.

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 305-312

Plants are valuable sources of natural products with great potentials for producing new drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activities of acetone, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Cissus aralioides and Cissus polyantha against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginos, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans using the agar well diffusion method. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters (mm) and presented as mean values with the standard error. The ethanol extract of C. polyantha showed the highest zone of inhibition of 12 mm against P. aureginosa at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. This was significantly lower than the activities of the standard antibiotics against the same pathogen.  Similarly, the observed zone of inhibition (6.5 mm) of acetone extracts of C. polyantha against S. typhi, was lower than the standard antibiotics with a range of 22.55$$\pm$$0.43 mm to 32.75$$\pm$$ 0.82 mm. Cold aqueous extracts of both species showed no inhibition zone. The leaf extracts of the two plant species did not significantly inhibit bacterial and fungal growths which suggests that C. polyantha and C. aralioides leaf extracts may not be effective in the treatment of microbial infections caused by the test organisms used in this study.

##### RESPONSE OF RED CABBAGE PLANTS GROWN ON SALT AFFECTED SOIL TO DIFFERENT COMPOST SOURCES WITH FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS UNDER SOIL ADDITION OF SULFUR

DINA A. GHAZI, M. A. EL-SHERPINY, SHIMAA M. ELMAHDY

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 313-322

The scientific community is seeking to find solutions that will restore degraded soils such as salt-affected soil and mitigate the negative effects of soil salinity So, a field trial was performed  during two successive seasons to determine the effect of different compost sources i.e., plant residues compost, FYM compost and town refuse compost (at rate of 7.50 ton fed-1 for all of them) as main plots and sulfur fertilization as subplots [once in the presence of  elemental sulfur (at rate of 150 kg fed-1) and other  in the absence of agricultural sulfur] as well as external application of antioxidants as sub-subplots [0.0 (control), proline and ascorbic at rate of 80.0 mg L-1 for  both of them ] on the performance of red cabbage plants grown on salt affected soil

The main results of the current study can be summarized as follows;

1. The maximum values of growth and yield parameters of red cabbage plants expressed in plant height, chlorophyll and carotene contents, leaf area, head length, No of heading outer leaves plant-1, head diameter and weight and yield as well as quality traits e., anthocyanin pigment, vitamin C and TDS were recorded when the plants  treated with the FYM compost followed by that treated with  plant residues compost and lately that treated with town refuse compost.
2. Also, the performance of red cabbage treated with sulfur was better than that grown without sulfur fertilization.
3. Regarding foliar application treatments, the superior treatment was proline, while the treatment of ascorbic acid came in the second order compared to control treatment which came in the last order
4. Salinity stress led to raise antioxidants production in red cabbage plant    to hinder the hazard effect of ROS, which were produced due to salinity stress, while studied treatments led to a decline of the red cabbage plant's self-production from antioxidants

The current investigation confirms that all different compost sources had a vital role in improvement the performance of red cabbage plants grown on salt affected soil Application of elemental sulfur is a very effective technique to improve the quantity and quality of red cabbage production under salt-affected soils Foliar application of both proline and ascorbic acid improves red cabbage growth performance and this is usefully reflected on head yield, where both proline and ascorbic acid can inhibit the impact of salt-affected soil stress, but proline amino acid is more effective than ascorbic acid. Generally, it can be concluded that both studied organic amendments as well as the studied antioxidants have a vital role in improving productivity of red cabbage grown on salt affected soil Moreover, it can be said that the treating red cabbage with the combined treatment of FYM compost x sulfur fertilization x proline was the best for reducing harmful effect of soil salinity

##### EMPLOYMENT OF METAL GRAPHITE ELECTRODES AS A HIGH VOLTAGE FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

Z. E. ISMAIL, A. I. MOUSSA, M. M. RADWAN

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 323-330

The electrolysis cell involved dual metal graphite electrodes were tested in the process of separating glycerol from biodiesel. The electrodes parameters were identified as 8 X150 mm in diameter and length with different spans of 25, 50, and 75mm. A fly-back transformer is used with CRT televisions and computer monitors to produce high voltage. The electrodes are placed in the middle of the vessel height unit with voltage and current intensities of 5.0 kV-21.5mA or 10 kV-12.5mA. The variables under this study were three different high voltages (5.0; 10; 20; 30 kV) and three spans between the graphite electrodes (25; 50; 75 mm) under the constant recommended temperature of 600C. The observed results from the study were a glycerol deposition rate of 2.95 mL per second (220 seconds) when using a distance of 25 mm and a high voltage of 30 kV. Also, by increasing the distance, the effectiveness of the voltage decreased. The glycerol deposition rate decreased by 1.54 mL per second (420 s) and 1.05 mL per second (620 s) at a distance of 50mm and 75 mm, respectively, under a high voltage of 30 kV. Therefore, the best treatment is to use metallic graphite electrodes with a distance between the electrodes of 25 mm and a high voltage of 30 kV.

##### IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF POTATO PLANTS VIA ADDITION OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC POTASSIUM SOURCES

MOHAMED A. SOLIMAN, MOHAMED A. EL-SHERPINY, AMYAZ B. KHADRA

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 331-341

The Egyptian government is eager to increase the production of strategic crops e.g., potato, especially that grown on degraded soils to face the escalating population increase. It is known the importance of organic fertilization for potato tubers; however, there is no consensus among the researchers in the plant nutrition field on the best organic source that should be used, where the opinions differ in this regard. Also, it is known the vital role of potassium (K) in sizing agents for potato tubers but there is no consensus on the best potassium source that should be used. So, this research work was executed aiming to assess the effect of soil addition of different organic sources before planting i.e., ChM, plant residues compost and FYM as main plots and K fertilization under fertigation system via different K sources [potassium nitrate (46.0 % K2O), potassium silicate (K2SiO3, 60.0 %K), potassium citrate (K3C6H5O7, 45.0 % K2O), potassium sulphate (K2SO4, 48.0 % K2O)] as sub main plots on performance growth, tubers quality and productivity of potato ̎Cv Spuntaʺ  plant grown on sandy loam soil located in the North Nile Delta of Egypt during the growing season of 2022.

The findings indicate that the maximum values of all studied parameters which express the performance growth, tubers quality and productivity e.g., plant height, fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, average weight of one tuber, No. of tuber plant-1, total tuber yield, total carbohydrates, total sugars, dry matter, total dissolved solids were recorded when the potato plants  treated with the ChM amendment followed by that treated with plant residues compost and lately potato plants treated with FYM. On the other hand, potato plants fertilized with potassium silicate recorded the best performance growth, tubers quality and productivity in comparison with that fertilized with other studied K sources, where potassium nitrate form came in the second order followed by potassium citrate, while the potassium sulphate form came in the last order. With the note that the significant difference between potassium nitrate and silicate wasn't great, but there were no significant differences between both forms in some characteristics e.g., chlorophyll, N and K contents in leaves. Also, available soil N, P and K after harvest pronouncedly improved due to all studied treatments.

Generally, the treating potato with the combined treatment of ChM x potassium silicate was the best for optimizing potato production under sandy loam soil conditions.

##### VARIATION OF LEAF GAS EXCHANGE PARAMETERS WITHIN THE CANOPY OF RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis)

H. K. L. K. GUNASEKERA, W. A. J. M. DE COSTA, A. NUGAWELA

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 342-351

The main objective of this study was to investigate the variation of leaf gas exchange parameters of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) within the canopy of tapped trees of two Hevea genotypes, I.e. RRIC121 and RRISL 211. The leaf gas exchange parameters, I.e.Stomatal conductance (gs),Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Leaf temperature (Tleaf),Transpiration rate ( E ),Water use efficiency (WUE) and Leaf-air vapour pressure deficit (lvpd) were measured under optimal environmental conditions. Study findings clearly revealed that the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) gradually decrease with increasing light intensity in both clones. The same trend was observed in the different canopy layers under both tapping treatments.Clone RRISL 211 showed a higher leaf temperature than RRIC 121 under tapping. The highest leaf-air vapour pressure deficit (lvpd) was shown in the leaves of the upper canopy and lowest in the bottom canopy layer. Furthermore, the water use efficiency (WUE) of clone RRISL 211 was higher than that of clone RRIC 121 under tapping. In the tapped treatment, because of tapping, the photosynthetic rate is stimulated relative to the transpiration rate. The positive latex yield response to WUE and lvpd of top leaves indicates that, in top leaves when lvpd increases transpiration also increases accordingly. Clone RRIC 121 showed a greater contribution from the middle layer to overall canopy photosynthesis while RRISL 211 showed a lower contribution. This could have been due to the more open canopy architecture in clone RRIC 121 or maintenance of a higher A in low light levels.

##### PHYSIOLOGICAL, VEGETATIVE, AND PRODUCTION RESPONSE OF PEACH TO WATER RESTRICTION DURING SLOWDOWN PERIODS OF FRUIT GROWTH

MERIAME LAITA, ZERHOUNE MESSAOUDI, RACHID BENKIRANE, HOUSSAIN AITHADDOU

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 352-360

The low rainfall and poor rainfall in recent years in Morocco, have led to a situation of water deficit throughout the cropping cycle, including stone fruits. A study was carried out to investigate the behavior of peach trees under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in the Sais plain. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal irrigation dose that would guarantee an improvement in productivity and quality of the peach trees. This experimnet used completely randomized design with 3 replications. The study was carried out (in two replications in 2017 and 2018) four water regimes during slowdown periods of fruit growth: T0 (equal to or greater than 100% of the crop's Evapotranspiration (ETc)), T1 (100% ETc), T2 (80% ETc) and T3 (60% ETc). The response of trees is presented for physiological indicators – vegetative development , production and quality parameters for the two years. The effect of RDI on peach trees showed that water restrictions varied according to the water regime. The decrease in irrigation rate negatively affected the main vegetative and production parameters. However, for the 20% decrease in irrigation rate, the effect on yield was not significant. Regarding vegetative growth, the T3 (60%ETc) water regime significantly affected the increase in length and diameter of the current year's shoots, while the T2 (80 % ETc) water regime did not affect leaf area. Trees from treatment T3 (60 % ETc) yielded fruits with the highest sugar content. This increase in sugar content was accompanied by a decrease in the total acidity of the fruit juice.

##### IMPACT OF POLYURETHANE COATED FERTILIZERS ON SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY IN SANDY SOIL

M. A. ESMAEIL, A. K. ABDEL FATTAH, S. H. ABD ELGHANY, A. A. ARAFAT

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 361-369

Two field experiments were carried out at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, during the two winter seasons 2020/2021 and 2021/2022 to estimate the impact of different doses of polyurethane coated fertilizers on some chemical properties of soil and wheat productivity in sandy soil. The experiment units were arranged in a complete randomized block design. Results elucidated that soil chemical properties were improved as a result of the studied treatments. Soil EC values were significantly decreased in the studied treatments than those of control. The best addition was 75% coated RD. The studied treatments caused significant increases in the values of organic matter content of soil. Values of pH were slightly decreased. There were significant increases in the values of soil available micronutrients (iron, manganese and zinc) and available macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) after applying the studied treatments. The highest values of soil macro and micronutrients were recorded in 75% RD coated fertilizers, while the lowest values were found in 25% RD coated fertilizers. Concerning wheat yield parameters, there were significant differences in values of grains, straw yields and weight of 1000 seeds between the treatment (25% RD coated) and all of the other treatments. The highest yield values were found in the treatment (75% RD coated), while the lowest values were recorded in (25% RD coated). There was a slight difference between control and each of (50% RD coated) and (75% RD coated). The treatment (50% RD coated) gave yield values near to the control (100% mineral RD). This means that this treatment save about 50% of the used traditional N-P-K fertilizers.

##### IRRIGATION WITH MAGNETICALLY TREATED WATER ON THE EFFICIENCY OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS AND IMPROVING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT PLANTS GROWN ON DIFFERENT SOILS

KHOLOUD A. EL-NAQMA, M. M. A. SHABANA, M. A. EL-SHERPINY

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 370-383

In most soils of Egypt, the activity of calcium is high and this negatively affects phosphorus availability, thus declining of efficiency of added phosphorus fertilizers, moreover, the country faces water deficit issues. So, a lysimeters trial was executed during two successive seasons to evaluate the performance and productivity of wheat plants grown on different soils i.e., clayey, loamy, sandy and sandy loam as mainplots under two treatments of irrigation water i.e., non-treated water (W1) and magnetically treated water (W2) as subplots (using well water having low quality) and calcium superphosphate additions as sub subplots i.e., 100% of phosphorus recommended dose PRD in mineral form (P1) , 75% of PRD in mineral form + phosphorein (P2) , 75% of PRD in mineral form + compost (P3) and , 75% of PRD in mineral form + phosphorein + compost (P4), where calcium superphosphate represented the P mineral form. Also, the effect of studied treatments on some soil properties was assessed. The main results showed that wheat plants grown on clayey soil had the best performance i.e., chlorophyll content, N, P and K in leaves after 60 days from sowing as well as the best yield and its components compared tothat grown on other soil types, where the loamy soil came in the second-order and calcareous soil came in the third order, while the sandy soil came in the last order. Wheat plants under irrigation with magnetically treated water had performance and productivity better than wheat plants irrigated with non-treated water. Regarding combined additions of PRD and bio and organic fertilizers, the superior treatment was P4 followed by P3 then P2 and lately P1. Differences resulting from interaction among studied treatments were significant, where the superior combined treatment was when wheat plants were grown on alluvial soil and simultaneously were irrigated with magnetically treated water and were treated with 75% of PRD in mineral form + phosphorein + compost.Magnetically treated water positively affected soil fertility expressed in soil content of available N, P and K. Generally, it can be concluded that irrigation with magnetically treated water under bio and organic fertilization may be an effective way for increasing the efficiency of phosphorus fertilizers and improving the productivity of wheat plants grown on different soils.

##### INVESTIGATION OF SUITABLE PROTOCOL FOR IN-VITRO PROPAGATION OF Kendrickia walkeri

M. A. T. NIROSHINI, H. K. L. K. GUNASEKERA, S. A. KRISHNARAJAH, M. M. D. J. SENARATNA

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 384-389

Kendrickia walkeri, is an epiphytic climbing shrub that belongs to the Melastomataceae family and it is vulnerable and included to the National Red List 2012 in Sri Lanka. Hence present study was aimed to find out suitable potting media for vegetative propagation and to develop suitable protocol for in-vitro propagation of Kendrickia walkeri. The pot experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three treatments randomized in seven replicates. Treatments were three different potting media i.e. coir dust only, coir dust: sand and coir dust: leaf mold: sand. Semi-wood stem cuttings were planted and each pot were kept in single propagators for twenty one days. After that, the data were obtained on stem height, number of new leaves, number of shoots and number of roots with two weeks intervals. Data were tabulated and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedure of Statistical Analyzing System (SAS). Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) was performed to compare the differences among treatment means at p=0.05. Among different treatments the highest stem height, number of leaves/shoots as well as roots per plant was recorded in coir dust, leaf mold and sand medium. The laboratory experiments was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments randomized in four replicates. Treatments were different protocols i.e. 1% HgCl2 (3 minutes), 1% HgCl2 (4 minutes), 2.5 % Clorox + 1% HgCl2 (4 minutes), 5 % Clorox + 1% HgCl2 (4 minutes), 7.5 % Clorox + 1% HgCl2 (4 minutes) and 2.5 % Clorox + 1% HgCl2 (5 minutes). Nodes were treated according to the protocols and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/ L benzyl amino purine (BAP). The data of number of survived explants were taken with three days intervals. The highest number of survived explants were recorded under, 2.5 % Clorox + 1% HgCl2 (5 minutes) protocol. Hence, coir dust, leaf mold and sand medium can be considered as a successful potting media for vegetative propagation of K. walkeri by nodal stem cuttings and K. walkeri exposed to 70 % ethanol for 15 seconds, 2.5% Clorox for 5 minutes and 1% HgCl2 for 5 minutes duration, can be recommended for direct plantlet regeneration from nodal explant of Kendrickia walkeri and further studies for micro propagation technique.

##### ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY AND THE LEVEL OF AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCIES AMONG SMALL-SCALE PRODUCERS OF RICE IN RUZIZI PLAIN, EASTERN D.R. CONGO

NAKISHUKA BITAISHA SHUKURU

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 185-195

Efforts have been made to promote local rice production to meet both local demand and improve the income level of small-scale producers involved in rice cultivation in D.R. Congo, especially in its east part. The work aims to understand the current dynamics of rice supply & demand, and the level of agronomic & economic efficiency of the factors of production. A quantitative study, using a well-structured questionnaire survey, was conducted to request information on the efficiencies and cost-effectiveness of the factors influencing the quantities produced and the demand available. The concept presented as area exploited, fertilizers, price explained the rice supply and demand. Total cost of fertilizers, coefficient of work efficiency, land productivity, productivity rate of capital, net income, value-to-cost ratio were used for rice profitability and efficiencies analysis. The level of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers is 59.73 and 88.09, respectively in BVB and LVA. Fertilization with NPK positively influences the yield of rice cultivation. The economic efficiency is expressed according to the value-cost ratio (VCR) and net income (NI) indicators. VCR is 39.3 and 40.3, respectively in LVA and BVB. The average NI values of 3152.4, 2595.6 and 892.1 were recorded respectively in LVA, BVB and LVC. The supply is provided by rice farmers, at a very affordable price of 0.57 US$per kg. For 80% of small producers, the demand for rice products is available. Besides the productivity of the land is 4379.7 US$ per hectare, as well as the labor hired allows to produce more. The coefficient of labor efficiency being 5.07 (CWE >1) and is all well paid. The financial and commercial profitability recorded by rice producers per hectare is 1.0217 and 0.495 respectively. There are several factors explaining household behavior towards rice demand and supply in the Ruzizi plain, including price, available demand, agronomic and economic efficiencies, and profitability.

##### EXTENSION IN DISTRIBUTION RANGE OF RARE GENUS IPHIGENIA IN PEER PANJAL RANGE OF JAMMU & KASHMIR, HIMALAYA

MUSHTAQ AHMED, PREM SINGH CHAUHAN, SAFEER AHMED, MANJUL DHIMAN

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 273-276

In present study Iphigenia indica (L.) Kunth commonly called as “Indian grass Lilly” belongs to family Colchicaceae, as a new distribution record to the Peer Panjal range of Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya. The Genus Iphigenia was not documented earlier from this region of Himalaya; this is also for the first time the genus with species I. indica was recorded from the temperate region from oak forests and grasslands. The chief threats faced by the taxa are overgrazing, expansion of agricultural lands and early cutting of grasses hampering it from propagating its progeny and dispersal of seeds and hence delimiting its population.

##### NITROGEN FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT FACTORS AFFECTING NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY AND YIELD OF RICE (Oryza sativa L.): A REVIEW

ALEM REDDA, W. REDAE, K. HAILEGEBRIEL, G. WELDEGERIMA, G. TSEGAY, T. YIRGALEM, A. EYASU, S. HUSSIEN

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 1-22

Rice is a very fascinating crop because of its higher yield real adoption by farmers and its adaptative to water logged soils. The use of chemical fertilizers is an essential component of modern agriculture but is being checked by sustainability issues. Global food systems are not only failing to keep us all fed, but they are also failing to keep us healthy too. Managing land to produce food, fiber or timber must have some environmental impact, the magnitude of which will depend on the cropping system and the intensity of management. Nitrogen (N) is central to living systems. Nitrogen is a major component of proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins, and enzymes essential for plant life. The addition of N to agricultural cropping systems is an essential facet of modern crop management and one of the major reasons that crop production has kept pace with human population growth. However, nitrogen fertilizer and its management have been the subject of considerable research and debate for several decades because the benefits of N added to cropping systems come at well-documented environmental costs due to lack of proper management. Excessive rates of N fertilizer can lead to losses of inorganic N from agricultural lands into surface water and groundwater, thereby threatening our environment. Rice production consumes about 20% of the total N fertilizer used for agriculture in the world. N fertilizer is often not effectively used by rice in general and irrigated rice in particular because of improper management. Inefficient N management practices have contributed to low (30–40%) NUE estimates for cereal crops. To achieve high yield and high partial factor productivity of N, a scientifically integrated nutrient management strategy based on a comprehensive understanding of the causes of the crop’s yield and knowledge on the nature of nitrogen fertilizers is mandatory.

##### RESPONSE OF ROSE (Rosa hybrida L.) PLANT TO TEMPERATURE

BIZUAYEHU DESTA, NETSANET TENA, GETACHEW AMARE

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 93-101

Temperature is the most important factor affecting rose plant growth and flowering. Different components of productivity and quality, such as bud breaking, rate of flower abortion, formation of renewal shoots, the time between harvests, length, weight and diameter of stem and flower buds, leaf area and pigmentation of petals are affected by temperature. Cold or low temperature resulted in an increased in flower yield, stem length and flower quality. In this review, the current knowledge and possible understanding of low or cold temperature, which can be used to improve the bud break, shoot growth, flower yield and quality of the rose plant, have been reviewed and discussed. The role of low or cold temperature to mitigate the harmful effects of heat stress in the rose plant is also examined.

##### AN ASSESSMENT OF THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUSARIUM WILT EPIDEMICS IN BANANA

ANDLIA ABDOUSSALAMI, MIAMPIKA LUCE CHECKINA, MOHAMMAD NABIL HOSSAIN

Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, Page 108-115

Plantains and bananas (Musa spp.) are staple foods for millions of people around the world. Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), has been threatening the banana sector for many years, wreaking havoc on the economies of many tropical countries and becoming the dominant cause of land use changes in badly afflicted areas. The Factors Affecting the Development of Fusarium Wilt are discussed in this review. This viewpoint gives an overview of the importance of the soil environment in the interactions between the banana crop, the pathogen, and the pathogen.