Original Research Article

HEAVY METALS AND NUTRIENT STATUS OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY AROUND SAGBAMA CREEK, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA

WILLIAM AZUKA IYAMA, ONISOGEN SIMEON EDORI, PRECIOUS N. EDE

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 161-167

This study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and nutrient quality of the surface water of the Sagbama Creek, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Samples of water were collected and preserved using trioxonitrate (v) and in cooler of ice and transfered to the laboratory. Five stations were employed correspondingly with control stations and  results were compared with both control and standard permissible limits for the following parameters for both River water samples and the control samples respectively; Nutrients such as sulphate (69.2±96.27 and 5.04±53), nitrate (3.20±2.85 and 2.60±1.52),phosphate (0.48±0.19 and 0.43±0.44), ammonium (1.78±2.40 and 0.46±0.42); Heavy metals as Mn (0.44±0.42 and 0.07±0.0588), Cu (0.045±0.0014 and <0.001), Cd (<0.001 and <0.001), Pb (0.045±0.0107 and <0.001), Zn (0.098±0.111 and 0.048±0.0323), Hg (<0.001 and <0.001), Fe (5.96±5.0126 and 3.84±2.79); and Water bacteriology of THF (1.86±0.40 and 2.0±0.8 ), THB (3.52±0.65 and 3.66±1 ) and TCB (204±176 and 145±67). All values were either below or within the permissible limits for surface water, DPR or FMENV except ammonium ion, but the mere presence of water microbes indicated water pollution. Therefore the urgent need to reduce the direct defecation in water bodies around the study environment becomes a necessity.

Original Research Article

ACTIVATION PARAMETER AND SOLVENT EFFECT ON SOLVOLYSIS OF ETHYL BENZOATE IN AQUO-ORGANIC SOLVENT SYSTEM

A. K. SINGH

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 168-172

The rate of solvolysis of ethyl benzoate was estimated volumetrically over the temperature range of 20°c to 400c. in water-methanol mixture at different composition. The depletion and enhancement in value of iso-composition activation energy and iso- dielectric activation shows solvation in transition state and de-solvation in initial state respectively. The effect of solvent on reaction rate was tested in term of activation parameter. Simultaneous decrease in values of DH* and DS* with increase in value of DG* with solvent composition show that the reaction is Enthalpy domination and Entropy controlled .There is weak interaction between solvent and solute because the values of  iso-kinetic temperature is less than 300 K/Mole2.

Short Research Articles

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF LAKE MAGA, CAMEROON

D. FOTIO, A. PALTAHE, C. TSAMO, J. GONGWALA

Journal of Applied Chemical Science International, Page 155-160

The study is aimed at evaluating the pollution of Lake Maga (Cameroon), the main water source for agricultural, livestock and domestic activities of the population of the sub-division. The physico-chemical properties of water
and sediments from four different locations covering approximately the entire length of the Lake were assessed. Two of these points harbor most water of the Lake with heavy activities while two others are the extreme north and south ends of the Lake with little water but with lots of mud but with very little activities. Parameters such as pH, TDS, electrical conductivity, Total Hardness, Chloride, iron had values of 6.87-7.58, 64.6-127.8 mg L–1, 89.61-182.6 μS cm–1, 75-95 mg L–1, 17.3 mg L–1 and 0.12-3.56 mg L–1 for Lake water and 6.45-7.39, 51.7-198 mg L–1, 74.7-118 μS cm–1, 90-160 mg L–1, 17.3 and 0.73-3.03 mg L–1 for sediments respectively. Results show that most of the parameters studied were within acceptable limits as defined by WHO standards except for total hardness and total iron. Values of total iron were higher for sediments of points which harboured less amount of water stemming from dominance of rich clay soil at these points. These results show that this Lake is not so polluted and is safe for its aquatic organisms and the local population using it for their different activities. However, for consumption purposes it’s recommended that some disinfection should be carried out prior to use. The Government and local council should regulate the activities on and around the Lake for its sustainability.