Journal of Economics and Trade <p>Journal of Economics and Trade&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2456-8821)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers in all areas of ‘Economics and Trade’. This journal considers following&nbsp;<a href="">types of papers</a>&nbsp;(<a href="">Link</a>).&nbsp;</p> <p>The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a peer reviewed, subscription based INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> International Knowledge Press en-US Journal of Economics and Trade 2456-8821 EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA <p>This study examines the relationship among exchange rate fluctuations, foreign direct investment, and financial development in Nigeria over the period 1970 to 2020. The study utilizes the Autoregressive distribution lag estimation technique to examine the relationship among the variables of interest. The results of the study show that foreign direct investment has a positive relationship with the level of exchange rate fluctuations, however, trade openness and inflation have a negative effect on the flow of foreign direct investment into Nigeria. The study observed that the interactive effect of exchange rate fluctuations and foreign direct investment has a negative effect on the level of financial development in Nigeria. Therefore, this study recommends that there is a need for the Nigerian government to implement policies aimed at improving the interaction between the level of exchange rate and foreign direct investment which in turn would have a positive impact on the development of the financial sector.</p> OLUWADAMILOLA TOSIN FASINA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-05 2022-01-05 1 10 10.56557/jet/2022/v7i17447 DETERMINANTS OF TRADE INTENSIFICATION WITH FILLS GAP OF GENDER-SPECIFIC INDICATORS IN ECOWAS COUNTRIES <p>The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants of trade openness in ECOWAS countries and fills the gap of gender-specific indicators. The sample is composed of the 15 ECOWAS countries and covers the period from 2004 to 2018. For this purpose, we used three panel data estimation techniques, such as pooled regression, fixed effects model and Generalized Moment Method (GMM). The results of this study reveal that among the significant variables for all three techniques used, FDI represent the variable that positively influences trade openness of ECOWAS countries while variables such as population growth rate and GDP per capita negatively influence the degree of trade openness. Variables such as GDP per capita, population growth rate, labor force participation rate, political stability index, cost of starting a business, and population density were used as determinants for determinants of trade openness estimation. Result discovered that identification of policies to promote FDI and the implementation of measures to increase production is essential to cover the consumption needs of the population of ECOWAS countries. In addition, it would be beneficial for these countries to put in place an export policy for manufactured products other than primary materials in order to promote the expansion of intra-ECOWAS trade.</p> GENAUD ROMÉO KEDE MARIE-ODILE ATTANASSO ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 15 25 10.56557/jet/2022/v7i17850 SAVINGS AND CONSTRAINTS AMONG RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT <p>The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of savings on agricultural development. Data were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaires. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis models. Multi-stage sampling methods were adopted in a random selection of 312 respondents. Most respondents were married with a moderate family size of 10 persons with illiterate male-headed households that were mostly aged (46 years). Most respondents had 19 years of farming experience mostly engaging in crop production with a low annual income of N69,798 ($183.68) which is $0.503 per day less than the $1per day poverty line index. Education of children was the main objective of savings but inadequate funds to save was a major constraint. Most respondents experienced low agricultural output which retard agricultural development. Regression analysis results revealed that household size affects savings negatively while annual income, the sum of borrowed money and interest rate affect saving positively. The study recommends that credits should be made available in form of soft loans and respondents should be encouraged to save towards farm investment that will generate income.</p> PETER OTUNARUKE EMAZIYE OGHENEKOME EMAZIYE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 26 32 10.56557/jet/2022/v7i17854 ASYMMETRIC IMPACTS AMONG OIL PRICE SHOCKS, GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES, MONETARY RESERVES, EXCHANGE RATE IN KSA: EVIDENCE FROM A NON-LINEAR ARDL APPROACH <p>This study examines the influence of oil price shocks on government expenditures; monetary reserves; exchange rate in KSA 1970-2020. For this purpose, we employed a non-linear autoregressive distributed lag NARDL approach to disentangle the effects of positive, and negative shocks; identify the existence of structural factors and we employed the traditional unit root tests and the unit root tests with structural breaks to verify stationery. Through the application of the NARDL model, we confirm the presence of co-integration between oil price shocks; government expenditures, monetary reserves, and exchange rate in KSA. The results show that the asymmetry hypothesis is valid for the long run and short run which suggests that the oil price shocks are sensitive to the variation in the macroeconomic indicators. This means that these macroeconomic indicators play an important role in oil price shocks. And how to absorb these shocks in the long run. The findings of this study suggest that in the short run, the oil price is negatively influenced by the Monetary Reserves, and positively by the exchange rate; government expenditures. Results support the nonlinear proposition wherein positive shocks are compared to negative shocks. Complementary macroeconomic policy guidelines; the policy of rationalization of spending and the stability of the exchange rate in KSA can help to reinstate transform their economies away from oil dependence. And this would facilitate in dealing with the shocks that may face oil prices in the future. Accordingly; policy makers must pay attention to the Economic; geopolitical and epidemiological developments in light of unexpected variables.</p> HASSAN TAWAKOL AHMED FADOL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 33 46 10.56557/jet/2022/v7i17870 CRYPTOCURRENCY AS A MEANS OF PAYMENT: A REVIEW <p>Cryptocurrencies are a new technology that has given impetus to the modernization of the entire economy. Already, a huge number of people use cryptocoins for payment, participate in their production and earn on market volatility.<br>To date, cryptocurrencies are at the stage of formation and improved versions are released annually, which try to eliminate the shortcomings in the technology. But it is already obvious to many experts that cryptocurrencies are the money of the future with great potential for development.</p> BABAYEV HIKMAT NURULLAYEV JAVIDAN GARAYEVA VAFA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 11 14 10.56557/jet/2022/v7i17702