This research studies the acceptance of freeze-dried fruits in Hong Kong. The objective of the research is to study the relationships of customer satisfaction and brand loyalty on purchasing intention. Quantitative data were used and questionnaires were designed based on the three constructs above. The results in this research found that customer satisfaction has influence on customers’ purchasing intention whilst brand loyalty is not significant on purchasing intention of freeze-dried fruit in Hong Kong. The study shows that in acceptance of new type of healthy foods, the taste, outlook and the ingredients are more significant than the brand awareness.
The global financial great recession has had its toll on the global economy for over a decade with signs of recovery emerging recently. The paper examines the effects of external and domestic fluctuations on the growth and inflationary effects in a sample of 18 developing countries and 27 advanced countries. In addition, the analysis considers accompanying fluctuations in the exchange rate to evaluate the relevance of these fluctuations to the real and inflationary effects with respect to major domestic and external shifts. The empirical model accounts for anticipated and unanticipated changes and differentiate between the effects of the exchange rate movements on the demand and supply sides of the economy. Through these channels, exchange rate flexibility may differentiate the real and inflationary effects of domestic and external shifts. The evidence highlights channels where exchange rate flexibility differentiates economic performance, which varies across countries based on the degree of openness, uncertainty, and dependency on imports. These differences appear to differentiate the exchange rate pass-through between developing and advanced countries. The evidence warrants careful evaluation by central banks regarding channels of the transmission of exchange rate flexibility to the macro economy as they continue to assess the appropriateness of a given exchange rate policy and its implications.
This study sought to investigate the effect of macroeconomic variables on the Ghanaian stock market returns using monthly data over the period January, 1992 to December, 2010 which was collected from the Ghana Stock Exchange. Macroeconomic variables used in this study are the monthly consumer price index (as a proxy for inflation), monetary policy rate, exchange rate and Broad money supply collected from Bank of Ghana and Ghana Statistical Service web sites. The study employs the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) co-integration procedure. The empirical results reveal that there is co-integration between the macroeconomic variables chosen and stock returns in Ghana indicating short run equilibrium relationship. Further, the results reveal that; in the long run, Monetary Policy Rate significantly influences the stock returns, with an elasticity of -0.1345, implying that a 1% rise in the Monetary Policy Rate will lead to a 0.13% reduction in the stock returns. The inflation rate is also significant at 1% with elasticity 0.19315, implying that a 1% increase in inflation rate will increase stock returns by 0.19 %. In the short run, however, the stock returns are equally significant influenced by Inflation rate and Monetary policy rate, with elasticities of 0.00676, and -0.036147 respectively. Also a 1% increase in inflation rate increases stock returns by 0.007%; and a 1% rise in Monetary policy rate decreases stock returns by 0.036%. In both the short run and the long run results, inflation rate appears to be the most influential macroeconomic variable affecting stock market returns in Ghana. The results also reveal that investors are compensated for inflationary increases in both the short run and the long run and have implications for all players of the exchange especially the listed firms, to undertake viable projects to boost their performance overtime to give investors higher returns which will entice them invest heavily on the exchange even during inflationary periods.
Many big brands make use of the concept of celebrity endorsement as a marketing communication tools. We see/hear celebrities in television, film, radio, magazines and on the web where celebrity endorsements get millions and billions of Naira yearly and are highly recommended in the dreamy world of advertisements to promote products. This paper aims to find out whether advertisements backed by celebrity endorsement stimulate customers buying behaviour or not among students in Gombe state university. The online survey methodology is adopted and data for the study is generated through structured questionnaire designed on Google Docs and the generated link sent to respondents through various social networking platforms, including WhatsApp, Face book, Tweeter and regular emails. The data generated is analyzed and explained in a simple descriptive statistics using percentages, averages, variances and quantiles. Three hypotheses are formulated and tested for the study using the Chi-squared (X2) methodology. The study finds that celebrity endorsement significantly encourages consumers to take positive action in buying products/services among students in Gombe State University. Moreover, the study finds that there is statistically significant association between gender, marital status and decision to buy products backed or endorsed by celebrities. It is therefore recommended that marketers should consider gender and marital status when using celebrities in advertisement, as the decisions to buy celebrity-endorsed products/services is found to be affected by gender and marital status. It is also recommended that organizations should pay careful attention to the quality of their products/services as most consumers notice products because of their quality.
Every investor has the problems that how to invest their wealth in different investment opportunity. Assets allocation policy means that to allocate and invest the individual investors’ funds in different investment opportunity such as common stocks, preferred stocks, mutual funds, pension funds and equity funds. The asset allocation policy will provide the full information to investors about allocation of assets. So, the policy statement has the great impact in the portfolio performance. Without proper policy statement of assets allocation, a single investor cannot achieve his goals and objectives of investing the funds in portfolio because in policy statement the individual investor show the investment objectives and constraints. The investors show in policy statement about risk and returns in the portfolio.