Business creation and innovation remains the key element or force of driving the Nigerian economy, being the most fascinating topic that scholars have developed more interest. This research examined the extent to which innovation and business creation in Nigeria have influenced the income generation of local enterprises. It specifically looked at the market and process innovation in relation to income generation of the enterprises. The study purposively selected some medium enterprises in Gombe metropolis. A total of One hundred (100) management staff of the selected enterprises were examined as the sample size of the study. It was revealed that, there is significant relationship between the market innovation and the income generation of the enterprise. In the same year the study shows that there is a strong relationship between the process of innovation and income generation of the selected enterprises. We therefore conclude that, there is the need to build up new technology that can be used to process the available raw materials which may result from the investigation of natural resources suggested. The government should also appraise the taxing policy on firms and industries, to encourage the emergence of business creation and modification of the existing ones.
This study examines the interactions between among exchange rate, output and four other macroeconomic variables in Nigeria from 1981 to 2014. Using principal component analysis for the construction of financial sector development indices, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds test technique, Johansen cointegration and TYDL causality approach, this study finds that effective exchange rate, output and the four selected macroeconomic variables are cointegrated in the long-run. We find that exchange rate has a positive impact on output in the long-run which coexist with the short-run lagged impact. Taking exchange rate movement as the dependent variable, the selected macroeconomic variables have significant long-run interaction effect on the exchange rate. Even though we control for the influence of financial sector development index, real income per capita, trade openness, interest rate, and government expenditure still show much significant impact on exchange rate. Also, unidirectional causality runs from macroeconomic variables to exchange rate movement. There is unidirectional granger causality running from trade openness to national output. The findings of this study offer some important policy implications. Great attention must be given to real exchange rate. This is because when exchange rate is targeted at too high, the risk in terms of output might be enormous. Therefore, there should be less risk associated policies that maintain the real exchange rate at equilibrium or stable state by encouraging a sufficiently rapid depreciation of nominal exchange rate and prevent further real appreciation. Hence, attempt to keep the real exchange rate at too low might have some adverse effect on output.
The alleged undervaluation of yuan is blamed to be the main cause of rising levels of trade deficits in the United States. The major objective of the present research is to investigate and further analyze if and how changes in the value of China’s currency in the last 31 years (for which we have reliable monthly data) has produced an imbalance in the US-China trade patterns. This research is designed to clarify and empirically assess the extent to which the relative value of yuan against the US dollar has impacted United States imports from China.
Agriculture remains the main stay and occupation of the Ogbaku people since ages. However, from the beginning it has been subsistence and faced many risks and vulnerability; which has led to the extinction of the indigenous yam crop. The objective of this study therefore is to examine the causes and consequences of the extinction of indigenous yam crop in Ogbaku land in Imo State of South-Eastern Nigeria. Over time and space and due to technological gap between developed and developing countries, traditionalism and modernization, the community has failed to develop rapid expansion and productively in this sector. To worsen it, since the mid -1940s when white collar jobs became popular, the agricultural sector came more to experience a shrinking stature. To belong to the white collar industry meant advancement, sophistication, urban living and a higher standard of living, and to the smallholder farmer, poverty, lack, insecurity, superstition and alienation. The age-old smallholder farming community is now confronted with the realities of modern existence in a country where poverty elimination, sustainable development and food security have become mere pious proclamations. The present study is qualitative in nature. The study conducted a survey of focused group discussion with traditional chiefs (rulers), the rural farmers and notable leaders of thought in Ogbaku community. The research concluded that the extinction of the indigenous yam crop in Ogbaku land is majorly as a result of modernization, climate change, poor government policies on agriculture and preference to white collar jobs and rural- urban migration.
A child first setting foot in the urban area is most likely to gain easy employment in a roadside small hotels, restaurants, tea or sweet shop. Children are physically and mentally incapable of doing anything. Many children work in extremely dangerous situation and in exploitative and abusive condition in the world. Child labour is a problematic issue for every under developing country. It is estimated that in Nepal, 127,000 children are trapped in worst form of child labour. 70 respondents were selected for this study. According to age group of child labourer, 13-14 age groups occupied 50%, and 11-12 age groups occupied only 41.42%, which shows presence of small aged children into child labour market. The majority of the people hold agriculture as their main occupation. 74.28% of the child labourers' families were involved in agriculture. Dropping out of school or never joined school, poverty, parent's illiteracy, support to parents, lack of school proximity to homes, not interested in study, lack of educational materials, parental negligence, parent’s death, maltreatment within the family, are the push factor whereas monetary value, a lot of food and good shelter was found to be pull factors for child labour in Dhanding Bensi.