Economic growth is essential for economic development and achieving high real growth rate is the key aims of developing countries. And objective of this study was to analysis causal relationship between gross saving and real GDP growth in Ethiopia by using annual data for the period of 1981 to 2017. Three stage analyses were undertaken: First, the time series properties of growth rate of domestic savings, growth rate of gross domestic product per capita, Trade balance, human capital investment real interest rate, Inflation, gross capital formation, growth rate of broad money, Aggregate consumption expenditure rate, were determined by ADF unit root test procedure. The estimated results indicate none of the variables were I (2). Second, the co-integration test was undertaken by ARDL bound test. The long run and short run relationship the level of GDP per capita and growth rate of domestic saving was performed. As result suggested growth rate of domestic saving was insignificant in long run. But growth rate of domestic saving was negatively affected growth rate of GDP per capita in short run and significant at 5% level. Similarly, the effect on growth rate of domestic saving by growth rate of GDP per capital was performed. The result indicated, up trend of GDP per capita was positively affected growth rate of domestic saving in both short run and long run. The causality test was under taken by Granger test; the result suggested that there exist bidirectional causality between growth rate of domestic saving and growth rate of GDP per capital in Ethiopia. Thus the government should take steps to facilitate for investment through which saving affect the economy.
The study examined the impact of monetary policy decisions in stimulating the assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria 2000-2020. While the specific objectives are to: Measure the impact of interest rate spread on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Determine the impact of exchange rate on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Investigate the impact of inflation rate on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The model used in this study is Auto regressive distributed lag as a form of multiple regression models. It is a special type of regression called auto regressive distributed lag. Result revealed that Interest rate had a negative and non-significant impact on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria, Exchange rate had a positive and significant impact on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria, Inflation rate had a negative and non-significant impact on assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria,. The implication of findings revealed that if the government fails in their monetary policy decisions, it will go a long way to affect deposit money banks and also economy. The study concluded that monetary policy decisions play serious significant effects on the assets of deposit money banks in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should create reasonable credit to private sector and therefore regulates the interest rate to be charged. Exchange rate has a significant effect on Insurance profitability in Nigeria. This study recommend that public enlightenment campaigns should be done by government directing people about the availability of money kept for agricultural loans and various credits so as to control black market in exchange rate. It was recommended that effective policies such as policies that will encourage manufacturers to have access to bank credits without democratic bottleneck will go a long way to provide efficiency in the system and hence improves or control inflation; however, gradual control of inflation through mopping up excess liquidity will be done by the monetary authorities to enhance the growth of deposit money bank assets.
This study examines the impact of commercial bank credits on aggregate output level in the emerging country with special interest in Nigeria from (1999-2020). After the preliminary investigation using the Augmented Dickey Fuller for Unit Roots and error correction regression (ECM). The results are as follows: commercial bank credits have a negative and insignificant effect on Nigeria's industrial production, control variables such as broad money supply and interest rates have significant and positive effects, the study finds that bank lending did not affect manufacturing production throughout the study year. This study therefore recommends that monetary policy should aim to cut interest rates to boost investment borrowing.
The Insurance companies always stand as the backbone of most developed economy, in which reinsurance companies serve as insurance companies' bedrock. This study investigated the evaluation of reinsurance mechanisms on listed Nigerian insurance companies’ performance and sustainability. The population of the study is to cover all listed insurance firms in Nigeria and a five-insurance company is randomly selected as sample size for seven years (2012-2018) in Nigeria. Multiple regression analysis is adopted to analyze the data. The study findings established the statistically insignificant relationship between return on assets (ROAs) and net retention ratio (NRR), net claim ratio (NCR), the net commission ratio (NCoR), the ceded reinsurance ratio (CRR) respectively because the p-value (0.481) in the ANOVA table is greater than 0.05, the study therefore, suggested the acceptance of null hypotheses. It is therefore concluded that the reinsurance mechanisms do not have effect on listed insurance companies' performance and sustainability in Nigeria.
The majority of Bangladesh's population relies on agriculture for their livelihood. Almost half of Bangladesh's population works in agriculture, either directly or indirectly. Industry in the agricultural sector contributes 14.17 percent to GDP. Women's widespread but underrecognized involvement in the agricultural sector Women in rural areas are the unsung heroes of the economy. Women make up 18.3% of the workforce in agriculture and related occupations, while men make up 22.3%. Women's labor force participation increased by 192.84% from 1999-00 to 2016-17, compared to a rise of 55.97% for all workers. A decrease of 16.26% in male participation in agriculture has been observed during this time. Women's labor force participation in agriculture is inversely related to their level of education and access to electricity in rural areas. Information such as non-farming income, land size, and ownership status. There has been a rise in the number of women working in agriculture, but they continue to face barriers to education and advancement in the field. Women do a disproportionate amount of work in agriculture but are rarely credited for their efforts. Bangladesh received a 0.66 on the WEAI, with a 5DE score indicating that 75% of women are not empowered and a GPI score indicating that 61.22% of women do not have gender parity. Increasing women's access to production inputs, educating women to develop confidence in carrying out agricultural businesses, and improving extension workers' skills in handling female farmer groups are all necessary initiatives for empowering women in the agricultural sector. The ease with which women can perform agricultural tasks requires the attention of both the government and conscientious citizens.