Original Research Article

DEVELOPING AN INVERTEBRATE NERVE CORD COMPRESSION MODEL FOR SPINAL CANCER STUDY

JUSTIN SUNGKWAN SO, JONGBIN LEE

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 83-91

Brain cancer or spinal cancer is the second most common cancer among childhood cancers after leukemia. Cancer in the central nervous system, such as spinal cancer, disrupts the spinal nerves, preventing the patient from carrying out any physical activity. Because of this, most patients with spinal cancer suffer greatly. To understand these symptoms and underlying mechanisms, most research animal use growing cancer cells or non-active materials to the spinal cords of vertebrate animals. However, these types of experiments will cause tremendous pain for vertebrates. The aim of the study was to establish an invertebrate nerve cord compression model for the simulation of spinal cancer research.

The L. terrestris, an invertebrate subject, has a relatively advanced neural network compared to its taxonomic status.  Weights were placed onto its nerve cord and injected neurologic drugs such as alcohol, lidocaine and acetylcholine. Then, the action potential was measured. The parameters of the action potentials were investigated while the earthworm’s nerve cord was pressed to see the relationship between the parameters of wave latent period, peak point, trough point, and wave width and the pressed weight under the influence of the neurologic drugs which were injected to determine how these drugs affect invertebrate nerve cords. It was concluded that there existed a linear relationship between the parameters with the weight and volume of the infused drug. Just by showing this relationship, the data proves the importance of the development of an advanced invertebrate animal model for spinal cancer study. By using invertebrate models, scientists can save many mammals like rodents that are used for spinal cord cancer studies, money and time for developing practical treatment modalities. Therefore, more research is needed for spinal cancer models from invertebrate animals. This study examines variations in the action potential of Lumbricus terrestris when it's spinal cord is pressed with a 100 g weight standard. A 10% alcohol and 1 ug/ul lidocaine solution was slowly injected near the ventral cord region before the action potential test was conducted. The earthworm's nervous system is managed by its cerebral ganglion, to which the ventral nerve cord is attached and runs through the body. Based on our observation on parameters from action potentials, this study concluded that there might exist high feasibility of an advanced invertebrate spinal cancer model that could be applicable for spinal cancer. Future studies might be needed to clarify why different parameters have specific changes.

Original Research Article

DEEP LEARNING FRAMEWORK FOR RDF AND KNOWLEDGE GRAPHS USING FUZZY MAPS TO SUPPORT MEDICAL DECISION

HATEM AHMED SAYED AHMED SOLIMAN, FATEMA TABAK

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 92-97

The utilize of machine learning as well as data analytics technologies in healthcare are facing fast increase development; the existence of machine learning techniques – such as deep learning – establish a key strength of healthcare fields.

Artificial intelligence with deep learning approaches which offer interactions is able to simulate human behavior. The growing amount of data in semantic web to deal with analysis approaches focusing on big data in health care required to develop, that growth led to the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is a markup for sharing ontologies on the World Wide Web [1]. OWL was developed as an extension of RDF vocabulary [2] and it’s used in the proposed decision support process. This paper outline Deep Learning Framework for RDF and knowledge Graphs using fuzzy maps to support the medical decision and suggest Diagram approach can be used for implementation.

Original Research Article

MANAGEMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC GALL STONES IN A TERTIARY CARE HEALTH FACILITY IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA

PROMISE N. WICHENDU, A. DODIYI-MANUEL, KELECHI IKONWA

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 98-103

Background: Gall stone disease is one of the most common problems affecting the digestive tract. The disease spectrum ranges from silent stones to symptomatic stones with its various complications. The disease is relatively uncommon among people of the black race being unknown amongst the Bantu and Masai tribes of Africa. The main stay of treatment is surgery. Open surgery was once the only option surgically but with the advent of minimally invasive techniques laparoscopic cholecystectomy has now become the gold standard of surgical care.

Aim: Although not common in this environment there is a need to evaluate the age and sex prevalence, types of stone prevalent here, varying modes of clinical presentation and spectrum of the disease as well as treatment modalities adopted in this institution.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of all cases done in this institution within a sixteen-year period. The case files of these patients were retrieved and relevant information extracted using a proforma. The results were analysed using SPSS VERSION 22.

Results: The collated information showed that gall stone disease is commoner in females with a male female ratio of 1: 5.6 the most preponderant age group was 41-50 years, commonest mode of presentation was recurrent right hypochondrial/epigastric pain. Commonest stone type was mixed contrary to what obtains in Europe and North America.

Conclusion: This study established that gall stone disease is overwhelmingly preponderant in females in this locality and continue to be treated here by open surgery.

Original Research Article

Trichiurus lepturus HYDROLYSATE PEPTIDE (THP) - CONJUGATED MAGNETIC Fe3O4 NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY TOWARDS CW-2 COLORECTAL CANCER CELLS

YUN-JIE SHI, HUI-MIN LIN

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 104-113

To prepare Trichiurus lepturus hydrolysate peptide (THP) coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and to study the anti-cancer activity towards CW-2 colorectal cancer cells. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were used as a base and small, antitumor peptides, prepared from Trichiurus lepturus, were conjugated to the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. XRD, TEM and AFM methods were applied to characterize the structure of the nanoparticles. Proliferation and Fluorescence polarization was applied to study the effects of the particles on CW-2 cell membrane fluidity in nonmagnetic and alternating magnetic fields. The result showed that the conjugated Fe3O4 magnetic nanopeptide particles were spherical with an average size of ~15 nm and it could enhance dispersion stability over an optimal pH range of 6.5-9. Membrane fluidity analysis showed that the P and η values in the experimental CW-2 cell membrane decreased significantly after 24 h, indicating that Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with THP increased CW-2 membrane fluidity in a dose-effect dependent manner.

Original Research Article

MANAGEMENT OF MALE GOITERS IN A TERTIARY HEALTH CARE INSTITUITION IN NIGERIA

A. DODIYI-MANUEL, P. N. WICHENDU

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 114-117

Introduction: Goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland and commoner in females. In developed countries, it is treated by total thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement for life while most centres in Africa do subtotal or near total thyroidectomy for benign goiters. This study seeks to determine the presentation, histological types and outcome of management of goiters in males.

Patients and Methods: This is an 11 year retrospective study of all male patients with goiter that presented to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between 1st January, 1999 and 31st December, 2009. Relevant data were extracted and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.

Results: A total of 27 male patients with goiter were seen within the study period. Their ages ranged from 27 to 76 with a mean of 46.7 ± 3.2 years and a median of 45 years. All the patients presented with simple multinodular goiter. All the patients had subtotal thyroidectomy and colloid goiter was the commonest histological type, seen in 14 (51.9%) patients. All the patients had subtotal thyroidectomy and postoperative complications were only observed in 3 (11.1%) patients.

Conclusion: Simple multinodular goiter was the most frequent mode of presentation. We recommend that the salt iodization programs should be sustained to reduce the incidence.