Main Article Content
Three common pesticides with different pesticide groups were used in this work. These pesticides include; chlorfenapyr (pyrroles group), imidacloprid (neonicotinoids group) and flonicamid (pyridinecarboxamide group). Two types of formulations of these pesticides were used; conventional and nanoformulations against the adults of glossy clover snails, Monacha cartusiana under laboratory conditions. The nanoparticle size of the tested pesticides was measured under a scan electronic microscope (SEM). The size of these nanoparticles was ranged between 241 to 652 nm. The loading capacity of the tested pesticides was 65.3 ± 6.4, 62.8 ± 5.3 and 68.4 ± 3.5 % for chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid and flonicamid, respectively. The obtained results showed that the nanoformulations were more effective than the conventional formulations against M. cartusiana adults, despite of the concentrations of the nanoformulations were one-fifth of the normal ones. Chlorfenapyr was the most effective in both types of formulations (Nano or normal formulation) followed by imidacloprid and flonicamid. The LC50,s were 52.6, 73.9 and 84.7 ppm; and 12.6, 14.6 and 21.4 in both normal and nanoformulations, respectively. These results observed that these pesticides not only toxic against M. cartusiana but also have antifeedant effect and therefore decrease feeding consumption. These results cleared that it's possible to use the pesticide nanoformulations to decrease the environmental pesticide contamination and the cost of application and also increase the efficacy of pesticides against the target pest.
Lokma MHE. Studies on some terrestrial mollusks injurious vegetables and field crops in East Delta locality (Sharkia and Ismailia). Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Agric., Benha Univ. 2013; 179.
Mohamed GR. Susceptibility and consumption rates of Monacha cartusiana and Helicella vestalis and snails to certain plants. Mid East J Appl. Sci. 2016;06(4):896-899.
Sabry KH, Salem HAN, Metwally HM. Development of imidacloprid and indoxacarb formulations to nanoformulations and their efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). Bull Natl Res Cent. 2021;45,16(2021):1-7.
Hollingworth RM, Gadelhak GG. Mechanisms of action and toxicity of new pesticides that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation. Rev. Toxico. 1998;l2:253 – 266.
Sallam AA, Desoky ASS, Abouelkassem S, Abd El-RahmanTMM. Toxicity of seven pesticides belonging to different chemical groups against the glassy clover snail, Moncha obstructa by using three method of application under laboratory conditions. Int. J. Res. Stud. Zool. 2016;2(1):17-23.
Radwan MA. Comparative toxic effects of some pesticides with different modes of action against the land snail, Theba pisana. Int. J. Zool. Inves. 2016;2(2):170-176.
Morita M, Ueda T, Yoneda T, Koyanagi T, Haga T. Flonicamid, a novel insecticide with a rapid inhibitory effect on aphid feeding. Pest. Manag. Sci. 2007;63(10):969-973.
Vaezifar S, Razavi S, Golozar MA, Karbasi S, Morshed M, Kamali M.Efects of some parameters on particle size distribution of chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionic gelation method. J ClustSci. 2013;24:891–903.
He Q, Zhang H, Li LX, Zhou XT, Li JP, Kan CY. Preparation and properties oflambda-cyhalothrin/ polyurethane drug-loaded nanoemulsions. RSC Adv. 2017;52684–52693.
Costat Statistical Software. Microcomputer program analysis version 4.20.Cohort Software, Berkeley; 1990.
Guan H, Chi D, Yu J, Li H. Dynamics of residues from a novel nano-imidacloprid formulation in soybean fields. Crop Protec, 2010;29(9):942-946.
Abd El-wahab HM, DarwishYA, Ezz El Din HEA, Othman AA, Abdu Allah GA. Comparison between the toxicity of nano and bulk formulations of imidacloprid against wheat aphid, bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. J. Phytopath. Pest Manag. 2020;7(1):31–42.
Wan-Jun S, Wei-Wei S, Sai-Yan G, Yi-Tong L, Yong-Song C, Pei Z. Effects of nanopesticide chlorfenapyr on mice. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 2010;92(10):1901-1907.
Chaud M, Souto EB, Zielinska A, Severino P, Batain F, Oliveira-Junior J, Alves T. Nanopesticides in agriculture: benefits and challenge in agricultural productivity, toxicological risks to human health and environment. Toxics. 2021;9(131): 1-19.