Main Article Content
Mudskippers have been used extensively in ecotoxicological studies due to their tendency to bioaccumulate heavy metals and other environmental toxicants. The present study investigated the proximate, fatty acids, minerals and heavy metals composition of Periophthalmus koelreuteri (mudskipper) from Okpoama-Brass, Bayelsa State. Proximate composition was determined by AOAC methods, fatty acids composition was determined by gas chromatography and mineral/heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Health risks associated with consumption of mudskippers (estimated daily intake-EDI, target hazard quotient-THQ and carcinogenic risk-CR) were determined by calculation. Proximate composition of samples were as follows: 52.50±0.20% crude protein, 7.50±0.02% crude fat, 0.29±0.01% carbohydrates, 15.71±0.015% crude fibre, 18.00±1.00% ash and 6.00±0.04% moisture. The following fatty acids were detected: lauric acid, palmitic acid, margaric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Minerals detected includes Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co and Mo and heavy metals (Cd>Cr>Pb). Health risk assessment showed the following: EDI for Cd was 0.001 mg/100g-1bw/day; EDI for Cr in the samples was 0.000628mg/100g-1bw/day. THQ value for Cd was >1 hence consumption of mudskipper (with respect to Cd) is not advised as it may pose health threats to the consumers. THQ for Cr and Pb were <1 hence there are no health risks associated with respect to these metals. CR values for all heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) in the sample were within the permissible limits. Mudskipper is a good source of protein, fatty acids and minerals however it accumulates toxic heavy metals from the environment.
Graham A. Air-breathing fishes: Evolution, diversity and adaptation. Academic press publishers; 1997.
Maxlan FG, Lawson EO, Boran S. Ecology of the Mudskipper, P. babarus in the Mangrove swamps of Lagos Lagoon Nigeria [PhD, University of Lagos]. Nigeria; 2003.
FAO. The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture: opportunities and challenges; 2014.
Tremblay LA. Vitamins and Minerals in fish; 2011. Retrieved 13th July from.
Ansari AA, Trivedi S, Saggu S, Rehman H. Mudskipper: A biological indicator for environmental monitoring and assessment of coastal waters. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2014;2(6):22-33.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. (W. Horwitz, Ed. 18th ed.); 2006.
APHA. Direct Air- Acetylene Flame Method, Standard Methods for the examination of metals (20th ed.); 1998.
GS, Udom SF. Chemical composition of the nutrient composition of some unconventional animal protein sources. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2005;4(10):745-747.
Andem AB, Ekpo PB. Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Mudskipper Fish (Periophthalmus Babarus) in the Mangrove Swamp of Calabar River, Southern Nigeria. The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2014;2(3):72-76.
Omar MN, Siti-Fairuz CO, Hasan MT, Nor-Nazuha MN, Nor-Dalilah MN, Kamaruzzaman Y. Study on ω-fatty acids from Malaysian giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri) fish oil. Oriental Journal of Chemistry. 2010;26(3):861-864.
Onuoha SC, Anelo PC, Nkpaa KW. Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Snail (Archachatina marginata) from Four Contaminated Regions in Rivers State, Nigeria. American Chemical Science Journal. 2016;11(2):1-8.
Bassey SCO, Eteng MU, Eyong EU, Ofem OE, Akanyoung EO, Umoh IB. Comparative Nutritional, and Biochemical Evaluation of Egeria Radiata (Clams) and Pomecia Palludosa (Gastropods) Delicacies and Effects of Processing Methods. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2011;7(1):98-104.
Olusanya JO. Essentials of Food and Nutrition (2nd ed.). Apex Books Limited; 2008.