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Contraception is the use of practices, methods, or equipment to prevent pregnancy in a sexually active female. Contraception methods, often known as birth control, pregnancy prevention, or fertility control, are intended to prevent the fertilization of an egg or the implantation of an embryo within the uterus. Hormonal contraception is a term that refer to techniques of contraception that work by affecting the endocrine system. To reduce the population of stray animals and wildlife, as well as to control rabies and damage to agricultural commodities, crops, and forest resources, advanced and effective contraceptives are required. Recently, advanced compounds are used as contraceptives like classical use of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH agonist, GnRH antagonist, and GnRH toxin conjugate-PAP in dogs and GnRH vaccines in deer, feral pigs, rabbits, and bisons. The possibility of limiting fertility by antibodies, inactivating important reproductive hormones, as established by active and passive immunization in animals, is a recent advancement in immunological contraception. Contraceptive vaccination (CV) could be a realistic and helpful alternative to currently existing contraception methods. The molecules being studied for CV development either target gamete production [luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)/GnRH, Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)], gamete function [sperm antigens and oocyte zona pellucida (ZP)], or gamete outcome (hCG). Veterinary candidate molecules are available like zone vaccine for dogs, bovine LH receptor vaccine, and phage peptide sperm protein vaccine. A number of target-based upcoming technologies include gene silencing, Kisspeptin, Gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH), Retinoic acid receptor antagonist, etc might make perfect and desirable contraception in animals and humans.
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