THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SEDIMENT QUALITY OF THE BENIN RIVER STRETCH: AN INDEX ANALYSIS APPROACH

Main Article Content

P. A. ORIABURE
A. E. OGBEIBU

Abstract

Sediment is an integral part of the aquatic ecosystem that acts as contamination sink and a home to bottom dwellers. The need to evaluate the contamination status before the seaport development using different pollution indices prompted this study. Four stations were studied from Ajoki to opposite Young Town. Sediment samples from the van-veen grab were analyzed using standard laboratory procedures, quality assurance and quality control measures. The results showed the sediment to be slightly acidic. The mean concentrations of all physicochemical parameters except organic carbon and organic matter differed significantly (P< 0.01) across the stations. A posteriori Duncan Multiple Range test revealed that station 4 differed significantly from other stations while among heavy metals, Cadmium, Nickel and Vanadium showed significant variations (P<0.05) caused by station 2. Cadmium and copper were above DPR (Department of Petroleum Resources) intervention limit. The high sorption capacity (KD>6kg/l) implied low mobility of heavy metals in the water with Fe and Ni being the least and highest adsorbed metal respectively. The heavy metal contamination in the sediment was evaluated by applying the Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI). Contamination factor ranged from moderate contamination (Cadmium) to very high contamination (Vanadium) showing anthropogenic sources (EF>1). Potential ecological index showed that sediment was severely impacted (RI≥600=Severe). This stretch of the Benin River sediment is contaminated with cadmium and vanadium from anthropogenic sources. Continuous monitoring of this sediment stretch during the Seaport development activities and operational stage is paramount to prevent further degradation.

Keywords:
Contamination, heavy metals, pollution indices, Benin River

Article Details

How to Cite
ORIABURE, P. A., & OGBEIBU, A. E. (2022). THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SEDIMENT QUALITY OF THE BENIN RIVER STRETCH: AN INDEX ANALYSIS APPROACH. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, 16(4), 173-182. https://doi.org/10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47931
Section
Original Research Article

References

Adesuyi AA, Ngwoke MO, Akinola MO, Njoku KL, Jolaoso AO. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Sediment from Nwaja Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. J Geosci Environ Prot. 2016;04(1):16-27..

Ogbeibu AE. Biostatistics: A practical approach to research and data handling. 2nd ed. Benin City, Nigeria: Mindex Publishing Company. 2014;285.

Snelgrove PVR. The importance of marine sediment biodiversity in ecosystem processes. Ambio. 1997;26(8):578-83.

Kanu I, Achi OK, Ezeronye OU, Anyanwu EC. Seasonal variation in bacterial heavy metal biosorption in water samples from Eziama river near soap and brewery Industries and the environmental health implications. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2006;3(1): 95-102.

C. CA, A. BS, J. A, O.n CS. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment and periwinkle –Tympanotonus fuscastus in the Different Ecological Zones of Bonny River System, Niger Delta, Nigeria. TOEPTJ. 2009;1(1):93-106.

Ali H, Khan E, Ilahi I. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation. J Chem. 2019;2019:1-14.

Yunus K, Zuraidah MA, John A. A review on the accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediment of Peninsular Malaysia. Ecofeminism Clim Change. 2020;1(1):21-35.

Kuang Z, Gu Y, Rao Y, Huang H. Biological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments and health risk assessment in marine organisms from Daya Bay, China. J Mar Sci Eng. 2021;9(1):17.

Daka ER, Moslen M. Spatial and temporal variation of physico-chemical parameters of sediment from Azuabie Creek of the upper bonny estuary, Niger Delta. Res J Environ Earth Sci. 2013;5(4):219-28.

Moslen M, Miebaka CA. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus from a Tidal creek in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Arch Agri Environ Sci. 2017;2(4):287-92.

Asariotis R, Benamara H, Mohos-Naray V. Port industry survey on climate change impacts and adaptation. Retrieved from United nations Conference on Trade and Development; 2017.

Available:https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ser-rp-2017d18_en.pdf.

USEPA. Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water; 2001.

Available:http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/sediments/cs/upload/guidancemanual.pdf

Wang Z, Zhou J, Zhang C, Qu L, Mei K, Dahlgren RA et al. A comprehensive risk assessment of metals in riverine surface sediments across the rural-urban interface of a rapidly developing watershed. Environ Pollut. 2019;245:1022-30

Lodhaya J, Tambe E, Gotmare S. Assessment of metal contamination using single and integrated pollution indices in soil samples of Nashik District, India. Int J Dev Research. 2017;7(09):15016-24.

Ngwoke M, Igwe O, Ozioko OH. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in marine sediments receiving produced water, Delta State, Nigeria. Int J Phys Sci. 2019;14(14):152-70.

Algül F, Beyhan M. Concentrations and sources of heavy metals in shallow sediments in Lake Bafa, Turkey. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):11782.

Onoyima CC. Assessment of pollution levels and risk of some heavy metals in soil and Mangifera indica around Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria. Sci World J. 2021;16(3):325-32.

Onwudinjo CC, Egborge ABM. Rotifers of Benin River, Nigeria. Hydrobiologia. 1994;272(1-3):87-94.

Arimoro FO, Osakwe EI. The influences of sawmill woodwaste on the distribution and population of macroinvertebrate of Benin River, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Chem Biodivers. 2006;3(5):578-92.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. American Public Health Association; 1995.

APHA. Standard methods for the evaluation of water and waste water. 20th ed. New York: American Public Health Association Inc. Washington, DC; 1998.

Soares MR, Alleoni LRF. Distribution coefficient (KD) of heavy metals in Brazilian soils. 18th World Congress of Soil Science, Philadelphia, USA; 2006.

Savenko AV. Experimental study of sorption of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn) by Alumina-silicate gels. Russia: Moscow State University; 2003.

Feng H, Han X, Zhang W, Yu L. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River intertidal zone due to urbanization. Mar Pollut Bull. 2004;49(11-12):910-5.

Choi KY, Kim SH, Hong GH, Chon HT. Distribution of heavy metals in the sediments of South Korean Harbors. Environ Geochem Health. 2012;34(S1):71-82.

Muller G. Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geol J. 1979;2(3):108-18.

Boszke L, Sobczyński T, Głosińska G, Siepak J. Distribution of mercury and other heavy metals in bottom sediments of the middle Odra river (Germany/Poland). Pol J Environ Stud. 2004;13(5):495-502.

Håkanson L. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control a sedimentological approach. Water Res. 1980;14(8):975-1001.

Tomlinson DC, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW. Problems in the assessment of heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters. 1980;33:566-75.

Venkatesha Raju KV, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL. Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184(1):361-73.

Ogbeibu AE, Omoigberale MO, Ezenwa IM, Oboh IP. Application of some biometric indices in the assessment of the water Quality of the Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Trop Freshw Biol. 2013;22(1):49-64.

Seiyaboh IE, Izah CS, Oweibi S. Physcio-chemical characteristics of sediment from sagbama creek. Niger Biotechnol Resour. 2017;3(1):25-8.

Ogbeibu AE, Omoigberale MO, Ezenwa IM, Eziza JO, Igwe JO. Using pollution load index and Geoacculation Index for the Assessment of heavy metal pollution and sediment Quality of the Benin River, Nigeria. Nat Environ. 2014;2(1):1-9.

Uwah IE, Dan SF, Etiuma RA, Umoh UE. Evaluation of status of heavy metals pollution of sediment in Qua-Iboe River Estuary and Associated Creeks, South-Eastern Nigeria. Environ Pollut. 2013;2(4):110.

Abowei JFN, Sikoki FD 2005. Water. Pollution Management and Control. Port Harcourt: Double Trust Publications Company. pp 236.

Udebuana OO, Irubor K, Mansoor S. Physicochemical factors affecting macrobenthic invertebrates distribution in the bottom sediments of Okhuo River. J Nat Sci Res. 2015;5(5):2224-3186.

Radojevic M, Bashkin VN. Practical Environmental Analysis: royal School of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House Science Park Cambridge Uk, 645pp; 1999.

Hyland J, Karakassis I, Magni P, Petrov A, Shine J. Summary Report: results of initial planning meeting of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Benthic Indicator Group, 70pp; 2000.

Braide SA, Izonfuo WAL, Adakwu PU, Chinda AC, Obinwo CC. Water Quality of Miniweja stream, a swamp forest stream receiving non-point source waste discharge in Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Scientia Africana. 2004;3:1-8.

Mucha AP, Vasconcelos MTSD, Bordalo AA. Macrobenthic community in the Douuro estuary: relation with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics. Environ Pollut. 2003;121(2):169-80.

Chakravarty M, Patgiri AD. Metal pollution assessment in sediments of the Dikrong River, N.E. India. J Hum Ecol. 2009;27(1):63-7.

Liu R, Bao K, Yao S, Yang F, Wang X. Ecological risk assessment and distribution of potentially harmful trace elements in lake sediments of Songnen Plain, NE China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;163:117-24.