Main Article Content
This study investigated the effects of climate change on phytoplankton composition and diversity in Iko River, coastal water of Eastern Obolo, Akwa Ibom State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study area was greatly influenced by tidal flush from the Atlantic Ocean. Phytoplankton samples were collected monthly from October 2021 to March 2022 at high tide and low tide from 3 stations. Phytoplankton was identified and diversity was calculated using standard indices. Dissolved oxygen (3.3–6.0 mg/L) was above WHO guidelines of <5.0mg/L and BOD (2.40-5.30 mg/L) in this study was above the (4.0 mg/L) limit recommended as suitable for aquatic life by the National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA), which could pose a threat to aquatic life. A total number of 65 species of phytoplankton were identified in the study area. Bacillariophyta was the dominant group (69%) throughout the study in species number, occurrence and abundance. The increasing order of dominance values was; Bacillariophyta > Cyanophyta > Chlorophyta > Dinophyta > Euglenophyta . Diversity indices (Margalef, Shanon, Dominance, Simpson Evenness and Equitability) showed spatial variations significant at (P>0.05). Pollution-indicator species such as; Tabellaria fenestrata, Nitzschia. paradoxa, N. filiformis, N. longissima, Cymbella cuspidata, Melosira distans and Anabaena constrica were recorded at either high tide, low tide or at both tides. Concerted efforts have been recommended to Government agencies and individuals to help reduce natural and anthropogenic pollution of the coastal water bodies.
Villate F. “Tidal influence on zonation and occurrence of resident and temporary zooplankton in a shallow system(estuary of Mundaka, Bay of Biscay),” Scientia Marina. 1997;61:173-188.
Falkowski PG, Knoll AH. An introduction to primary producers in the Sea: who they are, what they do, and when they evolved. In: Falkowski PG, Knoll AH, editors. Evolution of primary producers in the Sea. Burlington: Academic Press. 2007;1-6.
Kyewalyanga M. Phytoplankton primary production. In: UNEP, editor. Regional state of the coast report: western Indian Ocean. Nairobi: UN environmental program-Nairobi Convention; 2016.
Paturej E, Gutkowska A, Koszałka J, Bowszys M. Effect of physicochemical parameters on zooplankton in the brackish, coastal Vistula Lagoon. Oceanologia. 2017;59(1):49-56.
Zeppilli D, Leduc D, Fontanier C, Fontaneto D, Fuchs S, Gooday AJ et al. Characteristics of meiofauna in extreme marine ecosystems: a review. Mar Biodivers. 2018;48(1):35-71.
Wassie TA, Melese AW. Impact of physicochemical parameters on phytoplankton compositions and abundances in Selameko Manmade Reservoir, Debre Tabor, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Appl Water Sci. 2017;7(4):1791-8.
Sharma RC, Singh N, Chauhan A. The influence of physico-chemical parameters on phytoplankton distribution in a head water stream of Garhwal Himalayas: A case study. Egypt J Aquat Res. 2016;42(1):11-21.
Arnell NW, Halliday SJ, Battarbee RW, Skeffington RA, Wade AJ. The implications of climate change for the water environment in England. Prog Phys Geogr. 2015;39(1):93-120.
Thomas LN, Zhai X, "Chapter 5 - The lifecycle of surface-generated near-inertial waves. Ocean Mixing Meredith M, Naveira Garabato A, editors. 2022;95-115. Elsevier.
McGinn NA. Fisheries in a changing climate. In: Proceedings of the sea grant symposium fisheries in a changing climate held at phoenix, Arizona, USA Aug 20-21 2001, Bethesda. American Fisheries Society; 2002.
Barton BA. Stress in fishes: A diversity of responses with particular reference to changes in circulating Corticosteroids1. Integr Comp Biol. 2002;42(3):517-25.
Guzkowska MAJ, Gasse F. Diatoms as indicators of water quality in some English urban lakes. Freshw Biol. 1990;23(2):233-50.
Durack PJ, Wijffels SE. Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to broad-scale warming. J Clim. 2010;23(16):4342-62.
Zika JD, Skliris N, Blaker AT, Marsh R, Nurser AJG, Josey SA. Improved estimates of water cycle change from ocean salinity: the key role of ocean warming. Environ Res Lett. 2018;13(7):074036.
Parmesan C, Yohe G. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature. 2003;421(6918):37-42.
Thiffault E, Hannam KD, Paré D, Titus BD, Hazlett PW, Maynard DG et al. Effects of forest biomass harvesting on soil productivity in boreal and temperate forests—a review. Environ Rev. 2011;19() (NA):278-309.
Cole GA, Weihe PE. Textbook of limnology. 5th ed. Waveland Press; 2015.
Nwankwo DI. ’Euglenoids of some polluted storm-water channels in Lagos, Nigeria,’ Tropical freshwater biology. Benin City. 1995;4:29-39.
NEDECO. The waters of the Niger Delta: report on an investigation (2d rev.), p.^pp. 112. The Hague: Netherland Engineering Consult, 1961.
Parker DJ, Diop-Kane M. Meteorology of tropical West Africa: the forecasters’ handbook. Wiley; 2017.
Effiong KS, Inyang AI, Robert UU. Spatial distribution and diversity of phytoplankton community in Eastern Obolo River Estuary, Niger Delta. J Oceanogr Mar Sci. 2018;9(1):1-14. doi: 10.5897/JOMS2016.0139.
APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA); 1985.
Roy S, Llewellyn CA, Egeland ES, Johnsen G. Phytoplankton pigments: characterization, chemotaxonomy and applications in oceanography. Cambridge University Press; 2011.
AWWA. Algae: source to treatment. American Water Works Association (AWWA); 2011.
Andersen RA. Algal culturing techniques. Elsevier Science; 2005.
Golterman HL, Golterman HL, Clymo RS, Ohnstad MAM. Methods for physical and chemical analysis of fresh waters. Blackwell Publishing Scientific; 1978.
Lackey JB. The manipulation and counting of river plankton and changes in some organisms due to formalin preservation. Public Health Rep (1896-1970). 1938;53(47):2080-93.
Stuessy TF. Plant taxonomy: the systematic evaluation of comparative data. Columbia University Press; 2009.
Kral C, Worthington S. A Publication Taxonomy: an initial guide to academic publishing types, inside and beyond Academe. Mute Publishing, Limited; 2014.
Adebola T, de Mutsert K. Compartive network analyses for Nigerian coastal waters using two ecopath models developed for the years 1985 and 2000. Fish Res. 2019;213:33-41.
Adegoke AK, Hakimi MH, Abdullah WH, Ibrahim E-K, Sarki Yandoka BM, Al Faifi HAl et al. Geochemistry and oil-gas generation modeling of the Late Cretaceous shales from the Chad (Bornu) Basin, Northeast Nigeria. J Nat Gas Sci Eng. 2020;79:103341.
Ajagbe SO, Odulate DO, Akegbejo-Samsons Y, Kehinde AS, Ajagbe RO, Ojubolamo MT. Species composition, abundance and diversity of Ichthyofauna of Ikere-Gorge, Oyo State, Nigeria. Acta Ecol Sin. 2021;41(6):575-83.
Akanmu RT, Onyema IC. Phytoplankton composition and dynamics off the coast of Lagos south-west, Nigeria. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 2020;37:101356.
Alhaji NB, Maikai B-V, Kwaga JKP. Antimicrobial use, residue and resistance dissemination in freshwater fish farms of north-central Nigeria: one health implications. Food Control. 2021;130:108238.
Chia MA, Abdulwahab R, Ameh I, Balogun JK, Auta J. Farmed tilapia as an exposure route to microcystins in Zaria-Nigeria: A seasonal investigation. Environ Pollut. 2021;271:116366.
Chia MA, Lorenzi AS, Ameh I, Dauda S, Cordeiro-Araújo MK, Agee JT et al. Susceptibility of phytoplankton to the increasing presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aquatic environment: a review. Aquat Toxicol. 2021;234:105809.
Dalu T, Mwedzi T, Wasserman RJ, "Chapter 8 - Phytoplankton dynamics. Fundamentals of Tropical Freshwater Wetlands Dalu T, Wasserman RJ, editors. Elsevier. 2022;189-219.
Egbuim TC, Onyeuwaoma ND, Okere BI, Ezenwugo MH, Chukwudi AO, Uhiene GO et al. Erythemal UV radiation across Nigeria: where do we stand? Heliyon. 2022;8(8):e10158.
Ihimekpen NI, Igibah EC. Contagion and health threats scrutiny of cadmium and phosphate ions concentration in water physiques in South-South, Rainforest belt of Edo State, Nigeria. Mater Today Proc. 2022.
Isiuku BO, Enyoh CE. Pollution and health risks assessment of nitrate and phosphate concentrations in water bodies in South Eastern, Nigeria. Environ Adv. 2020;2:100018.
Izah SC, Aigberua AO, Srivastav AL, "Chapter 4 - Factors influencing the alteration of microbial and heavy metal characteristics of river systems in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Ecological Significance of River Ecosystems Madhav S, Kanhaiya S, Srivastav A, Singh V, Singh P, editors. Elsevier. 2022; 51-78.
Lobo MTMPS, de Souza Nogueira I, Fabris Sgarbi L, Nunes Kraus C, de Oliveira Bomfim E, Garnier J et al. Morphology-based functional groups as the best tool to characterize shallow lake-dwelling phytoplankton on an Amazonian floodplain. Ecol Indic. 2018;95:579-88.
Ndah AB, Dagar L, Becek K, Odihi JO. Spatio-temporal dynamics of phytoplankton functional groups in the South China Sea and their relative contributions to marine primary production. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 2019; 29:100598.
Niveditha SK, Haridevi CK, Hardikar R, Ram A. Phytoplankton assemblage and chlorophyll a along the salinity gradient in a hypoxic eutrophic tropical estuary-Ulhas Estuary, West Coast of India. Mar Pollut Bull. 2022; 180:113719.
Nwachi OF. Some Aspects of Ecology of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede) in River Niger, Nigeria. J Northeast Agric Univ (Engl Ed). 2016;23(3):47-53.
Nwaubani SI, Otitodun GO, Ajao SK, Opit GP, Ala AA, Omobowale MO et al. Assessing efficacies of insect pest management methods for stored bagged maize preservation in storehouses located in Nigerian markets. J Stored Prod Res. 2020;86:101566.
Nwinyimagu AJ, Eyo JE, Okogwu OI. Seasonal variation in abundance and diversity of zooplankton in Asu River, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Acta Ecol Sin. 2021;41(6):591-6.
Onyena AP, Nkwoji JA, Chukwu LO. Evaluation of hydrochemistry and benthic macroinvertebrates in Chanomi Creek, Niger Delta Nigeria. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 2021;46:101907.
Saifullah ASM, Kamal AHM, Idris MH, Rajaee AH. Community composition and diversity of phytoplankton in relation to environmental variables and seasonality in a tropical mangrove estuary. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 2019;32:100826.
Tarafdar L, Kim JY, Srichandan S, Mohapatra M, Muduli PR, Kumar A et al. Responses of phytoplankton community structure and association to variability in environmental drivers in a tropical coastal lagoon. Sci Total Environ. 2021;783:146873.
Wang Y, Wang W, Zhou Z, Xia W, Zhang Y. Effect of fast restoration of aquatic vegetation on phytoplankton community after removal of purse seine culture in Huayanghe Lakes. Sci Total Environ. 2021;768:144024.
Zabbey N, Sam K, Newsom CA, Nyiaghan PB. The COVID-19 lockdown: An opportunity for conducting an air quality baseline in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Extr Ind Soc. 2021;8(1):244-56.
Zendong Z, Kadiri M, Herrenknecht C, Nézan E, Mazzeo A, Hess P. Algal toxin profiles in Nigerian coastal waters (Gulf of Guinea) using passive sampling and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Toxicon. 2016;114:16-27.
Margalef R. Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in natural phytoplankton; 1958.
Jurgelenaite A, Kriauciuniene J, Sarauskiene D. ’Spatial and temporal variation in the water temperature of Lithuanian rivers,’ Baltica. Int J Geosci. 2012;25-65.
Sinokrot BA, Gulliver JS. In-stream flow impact on river water temperatures. J Hydraul Res. 2000;38(5):339-49.
(NESREA), N. E. S. a REA. National environmental (surface and groundwater quality control) regulations. Organization, W. H., Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 2011;98.
Organization WH. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: World Health Organization; 1997.
Chapman D, Kimstach V. The selection of water quality variable. In: Chapman D, editor. Water quality assessments. London: Chapman & Hall Ltd; 1992.
Abowei JFN, Sikoki FD. Water pollution management and control Double trust Publication Company, Calabar, Nigeria. 2005;236.
Tyokumbur E, Okorie T, Ugwumba O. Limnological assessment of the effects of effluents on macroinvertebrate fauna in Awba stream and Reservoir, Ibadan, Nigeria. Zoologist. 2002;1(2):59-69.
Yakub AG. Assessment of water quality and plankton of effluent receiving lower Awba stream and reservoir, Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Appl Zool Environ Biol. 2004;6(1).
Chindah A, Hart A, Atuzie B. A preliminary investigation on the effects of municipal waste discharge on the macrofauna associated with macrophytes in a small freshwater stream in Nigeria. Afr J Appl Zool. 1999;2:29-33.
Olaniyan R. Physico-chemical characteristics and Phytoplankton flora of Owena Reservoir, Southwest, Nigeria. Afr. J Med Sci. 2010;3(1):6-10.
Boyd CE. Water quality in warmwater fish ponds. Auburn University; 1979.
Effiong KS, Inyang AI, Robert UU. Spatial distribution and diversity of phytoplankton community in Eastern Obolo River Estuary, Niger Delta. J Oceanogr Mar Sci. 2018;9(1):1-14.
Etesin UM, Udoinyang E, Harry T. Seasonal variation of physicochemical parameters of water and sediments from Iko River, Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci. 2013;3(8):96 -110.
Ajao EA, Fagade SO. A study of the sediments and communities in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. Oil Chem Pollut. 1990;7(2):85-117.
Adesalu TA, Abiola TO, Bofia TO. Studies on the epiphytic algae associated with two floating aquatic macrophytes in a sluggish non-tidal polluted creek in Lagos, Nigeria. Asian J Sci Res. 2008;1(4):363-73.
Baker CE. Nitrate and phosphate content of ground and surface waters of the White River drainage, northwest Nebraska; 1973.
Nwadiaro CS. The longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates and fish in a lower Niger Delta river (River Sombreiro) in Nigeria. Hydrobiological Bulletin. 1984;18(2):133-40. doi: 10.1007/BF02257052.
Akpan E, Okafor N. On organic fertilization and plankton development in two experimental freshwater ponds of Nigeria. J Aquacult Tropics. 1997;12(2):147-54.
Ekeh I, Sikoki F. Diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton in New Calabar River, Nigeria Liv. Sys. Sus. Dev. 2004;1(3):25-31.
Ekwu A, Sikoki F. Phytoplankton diversity in the Cross River estuary of Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manag. 2006;10(1):89-95. doi: 10.4314/jasem.v10i1.17296.
Badsi H, Ali HO, Loudiki M, Aamiri A. Phytoplankton diversity and community composition along the salinity gradient of the Massa estuary. Am J Hum Ecol. 2012;1(2):58-64.
Meffe GK, Carroll CR. Principles of conservation biology. Sinauer; 1997.
Landres PB, Verner J, Thomas JW. Ecological uses of vertebrate Indicator species: A critique. Conserv Biol. 1988;2(4):316-28.
Temple SA, Wiens JA. Bird populations and environmental changes: can birds be bio-indicators. Am Birds. 1989;43(2):260-70.
Hilty J, Merenlender A. Faunal indicator taxa selection for monitoring ecosystem health. Biol Conserv. 2000;92(2):185-97.
Noss RF. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conserv Biol. 1990;4(4):355-64.
Mekonen S. Birds as biodiversity and environmental indicator. Indicator. 2017; 7(21).
Onyema IC, Nwankwo DI. The epipelic assemblage of a polluted esturine creek in Lagos, Nigeria. Pollut Res. 2006;25(3):459.
Moser KA, MacDonald GM, Smol JP. Applications of freshwater diatoms to geographical research. Prog. Phys Geogr. 1996;20(1):21-52.
Krumme U, Liang T-H. Tidal-induced changes in a copepod-dominated zooplankton community in a macrotidal mangrove channel in northern Brazil. Zool Stud. 2004;43(2):404-14.
Passy SI, Bode RW, Carlson DM, Novak MA. Comparative environmental assessment in the studies of benthic diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Int Rev Hydrobiol. 2004;89(2):121-38.
Blauw AN, Benincà E, Laane RW, Greenwood N, Huisman J. Dancing with the tides: fluctuations of coastal phytoplankton orchestrated by different oscillatory modes of the tidal cycle. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(11):e49319.
Davies OA, Ugwumba OA. Tidal influence on nutrients status and phytoplankton population of Okpoka Creek, Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria. J Mar Biol. 2013;2013:1- 16.
Okpuruka DU. Tidal and semilunar variations in the surface phytoplankton of a Port Harcourt mangrove creek. 1-183.