Journal of Global Ecology and Environment <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Journal of Global Ecology and Environment (ISSN: 2454-2644) aims to publish high quality papers in all areas of ‘Ecology and Environment’. This journal considers following&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/JOGEE/about/submissions">types of papers&nbsp;</a>(<a href="/index.php/JOGEE/about/submissions">Link)</a>.</p> <p>The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a peer reviewed, subscription based INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Knowledge Press en-US Journal of Global Ecology and Environment 2454-2644 CORRELATING THE CONCEPTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) AND SUSTAINABILITY TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN LAGOS, NIGERIA <p>So far, many CSR studies have focused on developed countries, while little attention has been paid to CSR activities in developing countries. On the other hand, the increasing discussion on sustainable development in developing countries, especially in Nigeria, has made a significant difference and triggered a wide debate on the relationship between CSR and sustainable development. CSR is arguably a dynamic concept that promotes sustainable development irrespective of the motivations and approaches of business organizations. The CSR components implemented by companies should lead to high levels of moral sustainability. The productivity scope of manufacturers and producers in the Nigerian plastics and packaging industry has been limited to economic growth and profit maximization, neglecting product life cycle management. This negligence has resulted in the indiscriminate dumping of empty plastic waste on the streets, leading to environmental degradation. However, it is important to explore how the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development can enable the reduction of plastic waste. The aim of this review paper is to link the concepts of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development to advance the management of plastic waste. The paper is important because it addresses the issues of corporate social responsibility, sustainable development and social well-being of the environment.</p> K. O. ALLEN-TAYLOR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 16 25 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47739 THE EFFECT OF COVID 19 ON MORINGA FARMERS UNDER THE VILLAGE SAVINGS AND LOANS ASSOCIATIONS IN NORTH-WESTERN GHANA <p>This paper explored the current structure and dynamics of the village savings and loans associations operations by women and its socio-economic impact during the peak of Covid-19 on sanitation. The study adopted a mixed method design of qualitative and quantitative approach. Women groups who have operated, managed, and sustained for over the period of five (5) years were selected for the study. In all, 48 women between the ages of 18-60 years participated in the study. The study revealed that absenteeism, irregular share-buying, and nonpayment of loans behaviors are factors that were found to negatively affect the structure, dynamics, and sustainability of village savings and loans in 2021 due to Covid 19.&nbsp; The study also identified inadequate medical care, reduction in household incomes and nutrition gaps as key adverse effects of covid-19 on the women farmers. Some trades like Pito brewing, ‘‘Kosee’,’ Shea butter and food vending businesses are either collapsed or almost folding up due to covid-19. Communities relapsed into open defecation due to collapse of household toilets because of Covid-19 related poverty. The study concludes that rural women had challenges in contributing to the village savings and loans schemes or pay back their loans thereby threatening the solvency of the groups due to the COVID crisis. The study recommends that women farmers must be given training in financial literacy and bookkeeping. Both local and international organizations must collaborate to overcome the effects of post Covid-19 on poverty and sanitation.</p> CORNELIUS K. A. PIENAAH ABDUL-AZIZ JERIKU SEIDU ABDUL-RAHAMAN ISSAHAKU ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-22 2022-08-22 34 44 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47811 ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RECREATIONAL OPEN SPACES IN ABEOKUTA NIGERIA <p>Recreational open spaces provides recreational areas for residents and helps to enhance the beauty and environmental quality of neighbourhoods. It consists of natural and organized open spaces used for outdoor recreational purposes. This paper examines the physical characteristics of recreational open spaces in Abeokuta Nigeria. In order to achieve this, available recreational facilities of the recreational open spaces in the study area were identified.. Descriptive and Kendall Tau B’s test was used for the analysis, and result showed significant relationship between environmental aesthetics and physical characteristics of ROS in Abeokuta, This implies that the physical characteristics influences the environmental aesthetic quality of the ROS. It also establishes the fact that environmental aesthetic quality has an impact on the patronage of ROS. It is recommended that the environmental aesthetics of recreational open spaces in the study area be improved in order to enhance its patronage.</p> J. A. OLANUSI J. A. FADAMIRO A. A. TAIWO E. AKANDE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 45 57 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47821 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN SEDIMENT AND FISH (Oreochromis Niloticus AND Clarias Gariepinus) IN BONNY ESTUARY, NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA, AND THEIR HUMAN HEALTH IMPLICATIONS <p>This study was carried out to examine the concentration of heavy metals in fishes, sediments, and their associated human health implications from Bonny Estuary, Rivers, Nigeria. A total of twenty-four (24) fish specimens and four (4) sediment specimens were gathered and tested using standardized procedures for essential and non-essential trace metals. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. In fish specimens, health risk indices for both carcinogenic as well as non-carcinogenic impacts of heavy metals were evaluated. The result of metal concentrations in <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> and <em>Clarias Gariepinus</em> revealed Pb (10.88±3.24 to 37.12±0.42 mg/kg) and Cd (0.94±0.66 to 1.16±0.10 mg/kg) were greater than Food and Agriculture Organization allowable limits. The bioaccumulation variable revealed Pb as the greatest metal accumulator in both <em>O.niloticus </em>and<em> C.gariepinus</em> from sediment specimens. Pb had a hazard quotient (HQ) greater than 1.0, indicative of non-carcinogenic side effects. Cancer Danger (CR) values of Lead (Pb) in <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> varied from 1.1 × 10<sup>−2</sup> to 2.7 × 10<sup>−2</sup>, while those in <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> ranged from 1.5 × 10−2 to 3.3 × 10<sup>−2</sup>, showing that both breeds are carcinogenic. The CR values of Cd were as well discovered to surpass the standard parameters of 1.0 × 10<sup>−4</sup>. The results of this study reveal worrisome levels of Pb and Cd, which need an immediate awareness and quick response to mitigate their associated health risk.</p> ADENUGA RIDWAN ADEWOLE ADEYEMI AZEEM ADEDEJI ADENUGA AMINAT ABIOLA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 58 67 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47822 PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AND VECTOR ABUNDANCE IN AMICHI COMMUNITY, NNEWI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Members of the Amichi community are easily prone to the bites of mosquitoes. This study was conducted in the Amichi village in Nigeria's Nnewi South L.G.A. to determine the prevalence of malaria and the abundance of mosquito vectors. Malaria parasites in the blood were found using blood preparation and microscopy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 232 people from the town's ten settlements, including 135 men (61.15%) and 97 women (60.82%), took part in the survey. Participants were separated into 8 groups with ten-year intervals and ranged in age from 0 to 80. 142 (61.21%) of the 232 persons that were checked tested positive for malaria parasites. <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>falciparum</em> 135 (95.07%), Plasmodium malariae 6 (4.23%), and Plasmodium ovale 1 (0.70%) were the malaria parasites found in the study. Malaria prevalence was highest in the age group 51–60 years (16, 72.72%) and lowest in the age group 21–30 years (12, 50.00%). Age-related differences in the prevalence of malaria were not significant (p&gt;0.05; 11.07, df=14). Males had a little higher infection rate than females (59(60.82%)), although this difference was not statistically significant (0.548 d.f = 2, p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Farmers were marginally more likely to contract malaria than other occupational categories, but there were significant differences among them (P&gt;0.05). Anopheles gambiae larvae made up 51 (14.63%) of the 351 mosquito larvae collected, with Aedes albopictus larvae making up 117 (33.33%), and the result was statistically significant (694.6 d.f.=12; P0.05). Anopheles gambiae produced the highest yield of mosquitoes, 12 (46.15%), while Aedes albopictus produced the lowest, and the Pyrethrum Knockdown collection (PKC) of indoor biting and resting adult mosquitoes produced 26 mosquitoes in 4 villages.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the study showed that Anopheles gambiae breed in all villages thus every person in the town is at risk of malaria attack. Attributes of the rate of exposure of the study population to vector bites due to the nature of their work and standard of living from a factor in the transmission pattern of the disease. Mass education of the people n malaria infection, prevention, and control through environmental management will go a long way in helping to alleviate malaria infection in this and other communities</p> CHINYEREM EMMANUEL DALU OKWUBANEGO CHIEMELIE DENNIS OKOYE AUGUSTINE CHUWKUEMEKA ANYANWU ESTHER CHIFURUMNANYA CHIKE COMFORT UGOCHI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 68 81 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47855 INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF LOCALITY ON THE CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS AND EFFECTS IN GUATEMALA <p>Guatemala has been a developing country in a variety of aspects. As the country continues to rise industrially, it faces the major concerns of air pollution. The pollution within Guatemala has continued to rise into dangerous levels. There are major health risks associated with air pollution, including heart disease and chronic respiratory issues. Most under-developed countries face scarcity in the access of medical attention and the distribution of medicine because of insufficient funds, government support, and regulations. A key contributor to the dangers of air pollution is carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless and colorless poisonous gas. Emission of CO is most common through anthropogenic activities.&nbsp; As a result of the rapid industrialization, increase in motor vehicles, and gradual activity post-quarantine, there has been a significant change in the carbon monoxide levels of the country.</p> <p>The objective of this study was to quantify the carbon monoxide levels of Guatemala City (which consists of the largest urban population) and Tikal using the EasyLog USB-CO. The research team monitored many locations under various conditions: population, ventilation, transportation, and found their mutual relationship among the parameters. The study concluded that CO pollution was more prominent at places of dense population and increased anthropogenic activities.</p> GRACE LIM CHELSEA LIM SEONGHO HONG YOONHA CHUN YESEUNG MOON MINSUH KIM ZACHARY LUO RACHEL JEON SEAN OH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 82 96 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47872 ORGANIC MATTER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL AMENDED WITH TERMITE SOIL AND BLUE PORTER PLANT <p>Crude oil contamination in the Niger Delta has become a serious problem for soil health and agricultural production. We hypothesized that applying Trinervitermes spp of termite soil and introducing the Blue porter plant (<em>Stachytarpheta jamaicensis</em>) to crude oil contaminated soil can accelerate microbial activities and improve the soil's physical properties and organic matter content. A field experiment was carried out on a 0.02 ha land to assess the effects of T<em>rinervitermes geminatus</em> termite soil and S<em>tachytarpheta jamaicensis</em> plant on the physical properties of a sandy loam soil contaminated with crude oil in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), consisting of 13 treatments in 3 replications. The soil was contaminated with 4% crude oil (equivalent of 40,000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) (Cr4) and 5% crude oil (equivalent of 50,000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) (Cr5), in single application. The soil was treated with 10 and 20 t ha-1 of T<em>rinervitermes geminatus</em> termite soil (10Mo and 20Mo, respectively), alone and in combination with Blue porter plant (S<em>tachytarpheta jamaicensis</em>). Results revealed that 6-month applications of T<em>rinervitermes geminatus </em>termite soil and S<em>tachytarpheta jamaicensis</em> plant have significant effects on physical properties and Soil Organic Matter SOM) Applying 10 and 20 t ha-1 of termite soil in combination with S<em>tachytarpheta jamaicensis</em> plant to 4% crude oil increased SOM from 29 g kg<sup>-1</sup> in the control plots to about 61 g kg<sup>-1</sup> after 6 months. The application of 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> termite soil to 4% crude oil (Cr4+20Mo) reduced soil bulk density, increased saturation water content by 15%, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) from zero to 1.67 and 1.53 cm h<sup>-1</sup> in 6 months, after the application compared to the untreated Cr4 soil. Macro-aggregates &gt; 0.25 mm were generally higher in the termite soil alone and in combination with the Blue porter plant. Micro-aggregates &lt;0.25 mm dominated the Control plot (54 and 46% after 3 and6 months). Water stable aggregates in 4.75-2.0 mm size class increased from 22% to 56% for Cr5+20mo after 6 months. The termite soil improved the macro-aggregates, while the Blue porter plants improved Ksat of the soil after 6 months.</p> I. IBIPIRIENE B. E. UDOM O. J. KAMALU ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 97 106 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47873 HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES IN THE LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA FOUND AT BARRA DELA CRUZ BEACH, OAXACA, MÉXICO <p>In the months of December and January of the nesting 2013 season 2014 were copies of leatherback turtles (<em>Dermochelys coriacea</em>) on the beach bar de la Cruz, Oaxaca to determine the correlation between the biometric measures curved carapace length and values of hematological, between these and the curved carapace width and Hematological values and the State of deterioration of each female. Were punctures in breast cervical dorsal half of spawning, when females were completely immobile [1]; 8 females, four altered blood samples were obtained (presence of barnacles, fungi and barnacle) and four not altered. We found seven blood cells in all turtles, varying according to the alteration. In not altered turtles were 10 783 erythrocytes values; 2 043 heterophile; 6 576 monocytes; 5 802 basophils; 2 010 azurophilic; trombocito 9 090 and lymphocyte 1 148, while in the altered: 2 622 erythrocytes; 1 077 heterophile; 1 557 monocytes; basophil 3 080; 1 927 azurophilic; thrombocytes 309 5 and 1 773 lymphocyte. Through the analysis of linear correlation was determined that organisms which presented alterations had fewer blood cells, which had no physical changes were greater number of blood cells and there is no correlation between the curved carapace width and the number of blood cells.</p> SARA VALERIA MÉNDEZ HERNÁNDEZ ANTONIO SÁNCHEZ VÁZQUEZ RODRIGO CUERVO GONZÁLEZ EDUARDO ALFREDO ZARZA MEZA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-06 2022-10-06 107 112 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47879 EFFECT OF FLOOD ON FRINGE MANGROVE IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA <p>This study assessed the effect of flood on fringe mangrove in South-eastern Nigeria. The approach includes assessing historical climatic factors of about 50 years in comparison to field studied data with the standard method of sampling and analysis. The mean temperature of surface water in south-eastern Nigeria ranges from 26.7°C to 32.0<sup>o</sup>C, salinity record varied from 17.7 <sup>0</sup>/<sub>00</sub> to 31.7 <sup>0</sup>/<sub>00</sub> minimum and maximum respectively, dissolved oxygen (DO) which indicates the healthy nature of a water body ranges between 3.7 and 5.0 mg/l. Mangroves coverage in the study area between 1982, 2003 and 2021 is given as 55%, 31% and 14% respectively, with ANOVA test p-value of 0.02 and 0.03 for row and column data. The correlation of temperature to rainfall show negative r = -0.09194, annual sea level show a strong correlation (r = 0.831499) with temperature, pointing out that temperature is the main key factor contributing to the flooding and inundation of the south-eastern Nigerian coast. Temperature and salinity correlate positively (r = 0.981) with each other and both correlate negatively with dissolved oxygen (r = -0.70, -0.82), correlate positively with mangrove species abundance (r = 0.838, 0.927) and diversity in same range while correlating negatively with mangrove evenness distribution (r = -2E<sup>-16</sup>). The study showed that the mangrove ecosystem in south-eastern Nigeria had decreased in size due to changing environmental condition such as temperature, salinity, annual rainfall and sea level rise. The goods and services provided by this ecosystem also decreased posing a threat to poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation in south-eastern Nigeria. The study concluded that aside from human influence to mangrove ecosystem, flood poses a great threat through inundation and coastal erosion to the survival and sustenance of this ecosystem and its services rendered to the environment and mankind in general.</p> AKPAN, UBONG ENO ITA EWA-OBOHO INI-IBEHE N. ETIM ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-20 2022-10-20 113 127 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47901 INVESTIGATING THE ACUTE CARDIAC EFFECTS ON AQUATIC ORGANISMS BY GASOLINE POLLUTION IN LAKE-SIMULATED BEAKERS USING Daphnia magna <p>Petroleum and its product are one of the most common water and soil pollutant sources and have caused marine and terrestrial spillages. The oil from these spills from polluted groundwater returns to the human population through numerous pathways by consuming fish and shellfish. <em>Daphnia magna</em>, also known as the water flea, is a small planktonic crustacean that lives in bodies of freshwater. They are an ideal model for testing the toxicity of substances due to their high sensitivity to environmental chemicals. Therefore, the data acquired with Daphnia can serve dual purposes: one for an indicator of environmental pollution and the other for estimating adverse effects on the human body, though not directly.</p> <p>In this study, a lake-simulated model was created using organic materials, laboratory shakers, and temperature control systems in groups of beakers, and their variable dependency was investigated. It was concluded that Daphnia's heartbeat was significantly depressed by the existence of gasoline pollution. Moreover, the impact on the cardiac function was linearly correlated with the lake-simulated model's gasoline volume, organic material concentration, and temperature. However, there seemed to be complicated conditions that existed mutually depending on the variables. Further study may be necessary for any underlying mechanism within the organs in the body.</p> ESTHER JEONG ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-22 2022-10-22 128 139 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47903 IMPACT OF ECOHYDROLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS ON MACROINVERTEBRATE DIVERSITY ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS ON THE WETLANDS ALONG THE SOUTHEASTERN SHORE OF LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA <p>Biological indicators have the improvement of monitoring ecological conditions and to measure of anthropogenic impacts on aquatic ecosystems. This indicates that appropriate wetland management mitigation measures that should be implemented in degraded wetlands to conserve biodiversity and improve water quality. The aim of the study was to investigate the impacts of ecohydrological intervention in relation to macroinvertebrate diversity and relate macroinvertebrate diversity with physicochemical parameters of the wetland in Lake Tana shore intervention site. Sampling stations were selected according to vegetation gradient. The sampling procedure employed using quadrats along transects following the main ecological gradient of water depth and vegetation structure and growth form. Four quadrats at every 25m distance were laid at each transect. A total of 24 quadrats of 1m x1m size were taken. Collected samples of each quadrat were pooled to represent each sampling site. One way ANOVA was further done to test any significant variation in macroinvertebrate and physiochemical attributes among stations. The Hilsenhoff Family-level Biotic Index (HFBI) was calculated for macroinvertebrate families. The HFBI index was analyzed and identified 975 macroinvertebrate individuals belonging to 15 families which were collected from all sampling sites during the study period, and the most dominant family were Hydrophilidae Coenagrionidae and Physidae. Based on the Shannon diversity index, the Gumetirs wetland was grouped under good ecological condition as compared to the remaining two reference wetlands. There was a significant variation in abundance and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates among sampling sites and better conditions exist at the intervention site. The correlation analysis between physicochemical parameters and macro-invertebrate abundance showed that organic carbon and temperature are most likely positively correlated with macroinvertebrate abundance. Thus, high macroinvertebrate diversity indicated that wetlands found in a good ecological condition.</p> ESHETE ASNAKEW SEYOUM MENGISTOU YOHANNES ZERIHUN AYALEW WONDIE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-29 2022-10-29 140 151 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47914 A STUDY OF THE EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY (EPR) SCHEME FOR PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN GERMANY <p>Plastic waste management is a major trending issue in the world today, as the volume of waste increases on a daily basis. As the volume of plastic waste continues to rise, the negative consequences have resulted in critical environmental issues confronting many countries in various contexts. Many developed countries, however, have adopted the use of environmental policy instruments as a critical role in determining and improving the state of their environment. Germany is an excellent example of this, where the implementation of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) scheme as a policy has aided in the management of product end-of-life cycles and environmental improvements to manufacturing systems. This article discusses Germany's transition from the Producer Responsibility Organization to the EPR scheme. Data were collected from across all 16 federal states' waste management policies. The author was able to analyze and investigate Germany's transition from the Producer Responsibility Organization to the EPR scheme using the case study method. The literature review for this research framework includes the current sustainability state of the environment, the contextual framework, and formulation, assessment, and reports on plastic management.To support the research findings, field observations were conducted by scouting through the plastic bottle collection processes at a selected locations and store outlets in Germany. More research into how to expand EPR programs in Germany to allow for the recovery of other plastic forms is suggested by the researcher.</p> K. O. ALLEN-TAYLOR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 1 10 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47723 EFFECT OF ORGANIC BIOSTIMULANTS ON PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF PEACH UNDER SAIS PLAIN CLIMATIC CONDITION <p>The improvement of crops quality and productivity, and the environment quality is an important problem worldwide. Due to the increased need for agricultural products and climate change, new tools has been developed that enhance plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses .Therefore the use of plant biostimulants (formally known as bioeffectors), may be promising alternative to chemical methods, has become common practice in agriculture in stimulating growth .In this context our experiment was conducted in a conventional peach orchard in the Fez-Meknes region. Peach is an important cultivar in Morocco in general ; thanks to its good productivity with high-quality fruits.We chose peach for its place in the region's arboreal sector, its vulnerability to the effects of water stress and its growing demand in the market. The objective of our experiment is to study the effect of stimulants on the yield and quality of Peach <em>(Prunus persica) </em>in the face of biotic and abiotic stresses in the Sais Plain. The experiment was spread over two seasons on three-year-old trees. It consisted of the application of organic biostimulants (Vitazyme, Protifert LMW10, Protifert LMW6.3, Protifert Zinc and Naturfer), in order to study their effects on: fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh weight, core weight, Sugar content and titratable acidity. The analysis of the results via the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software showed that the organic biostimulants studied have, in general, a positive effect on the improvement of the yield of the peach tree. This effect is particularly marked in the second year. Regarding the quality of peaches we found that the application of biostimulants increases the content of sugars in the fruit.</p> MERIAME LAITA ZERHOUNE MESSAOUDI RACHID BENKIRANE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 15 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47733 A REVIEW ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF FOREST FIRE IN UTTARAKHAND STATE OF INDIA <p>Forest fires have caused a huge loss to the Himalayan biodiversity, which has adversely affected the productive capacity and natural regeneration of forests species. The Uttarakhand state of India is severely affected by forest fire every year, which is one of the main reasons for loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services of the precious forest resources. As per as record, approximate 700 species of bird and animals are at the high risk of extinction as a consequence of adverse effects of forest fire. In the Uttarakhand state, majority of fire occurs in Chir Pine forests, which later on extends to the associated species, such as, Banj Oak. Worldwide, forest fire has been viewed as a serious issue responsible for the climate change. Subjecting forest areas to regular controlled burning can reduce the incidence of forest fire to the great extent. Further, imparting education, training and awareness on forest fire to the local people and state govt. official can considerably control fire incidence as well as fuel load in the forests.</p> REETIKA BINJOLA SNEHA DOBHAL PANKAJ LAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 26 33 10.56557/jogee/2022/v16i47810