Original Research Article

Mathematical Analysis on Matlab Environment for Experimental Study of the Thermal Properties of Epoxy Reinforced Composite

D. A. Ekpechi, O. O. Obiukwu, O. C. Nwufo, H. C. Obasi

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 6-18

Over the years, before the invention of software, some experiments especially direct base experiments had minimum limits to conduct compared to now, due to some possible issues surrounding the process, such as high cost, hazard, and time waste, even some experiments are impossible to run due to complex data involved, which then gave rise to the invention of software that aims in making some of these experiments flexible and safe. This research involved thermal experimentation, mathematical analyses in a MATLAB environment, and data comparison of the experiment and mathematical analysis results of an epoxy-reinforced composite. Five samples were developed (E, S1, S2, S3, and S4) using epoxy reinforced with coconut shell fiber, silicon carbide (SiC), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in different proportions and compositions, applying hand-layup and compression molding. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, degradation, and specific heat capacity tests were conducted using suitable apparatus and ASTM standard methods. The results indicated the minimum thermal properties of polymer material seen in sample ‘E’, due to no reinforced composite. Polymer material in sample E was improved in sample S1, where coconut shell fiber as municipal solid waste was used as reinforcement, possessing satisfactory thermal strength. Natural synthetic fibers (Al2O3 and SiC) used in this research indicated maximum thermal strength seen from samples S2 - S4, due to ceramic properties and close bond microstructural formation of synthetic fibers. 2020 Commercial License Model (CLM) MATLAB software was used to develop mathematical analyses from the experimental data, which when compared, the mathematical analysis results indicated 95% confident bounds on the root mean square error (RMSE) result having the same graphical trend as the experimental result.

Original Research Article

Application of Geospatial Mapping in the Analyses of Pre-monsoon Groundwater Fluctuation: A Case Study of Piriyapatna Taluk of Karnataka State, India

M. C. Manjunatha, M. S. Siddaraju, Abrar Ahmed, H. T. Basavarajappa

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 26-32

The graphical representations of groundwater models play productive role in hydrological impacts like groundwater movement especially in rural areas. The demand of water for agriculture, domestic, industrial and other uses are increasing due to rise in population, over-withdrawal of groundwater and global warming (?). Periodic evaluation of groundwater levels are very much necessary for effective management due to rapidly changing climatic scenario. Geospatial technique have become the most significant tool for mapping and modeling of groundwater level resources using statistical data. An effort has been made to describe the groundwater level of Piriyapatna taluk of Karnataka State. Eight representative observation well points of pre-monsoon data had been collected over a period of 16 years (2003 - 2019) in order to analyze spatio-temporal variation. Groundwater levels are plotted on a base map with their respective amount of depths, and then the contours of equal values are drawn using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method in ArcGIS. The final results are helpful in preparing for shortage and seeking alternatives if need arises from study report.

Original Research Article

Increasing the Efficiency of Converting Biohazardous Household Wastes into Methane Gas in Rural Guatemala

Cara Chong

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 33-41

Methane provides a great environmental benefit, producing more heat and light energy by mass than other hydrocarbon, or fossil fuel, including coal and gasoline refined from oil, while producing significantly less carbon dioxide and other pollutants that contribute to smog and unhealthy air.  Several methods have been employed to generate methane gas in homes, and the amount of methane gas generated by the decomposition of organic matter varies depending on the type of matter in question. This study was designed to measure the efficiency, as a relationship between the amount of raw material and the amount of gas generated, of three different mixtures of organic matter, such as food remains of home (FWFH), animal excrement, and equal-part mixture of  food debris (FWHC) and animal waste (CWFF). The study demonstrated that the methane volume from FWHC was the greatest among that from other feed wastes with significant difference (P>0.05). When compared the methane volume from FWHC with FWFH and CWFF, 68.7 %, 296% were higher in FWHC, respectively.  The FWHC was the most suitable for methane gas generation systems for homes, in order to occupy less space and generate an equal amount of gas.

Opinion Article

Chi-square Test and Its Utility in Forest Ecology Studies

M. Sridhar Reddy

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 1-5

In forest ecological studies, the data are often collected as nominal variables which can be summarized as frequency data. For this kind of nominal data, the chi-square test statistic can be used to evaluate whether the study groups are independent or not in their occurrence. This frequency data are arranged in a 2 x 2 table or with more rows and columns tabular format to undertake Chi-square test. Frequency or counts data of exclusive categories are used to test their independence/association by testing their proportion of occurrence in the rows and columns of the Chi-square table. The article includes the details on the data that can be used under Chi-square test through case studies, assumptions associated with the test, how the test and associated p-value can be achieved by simple manual calculation without any statistical program.

Mini-review Article

Impact of Masks Made by Additive Manufacturing during the Period of the Global COVID-19 Pandemic

Luis Humberto Robledo-Taboada, Gloria Elizabeth Atristain-Vasconcelos, Vicente Morales-Castillo, Gerardo Silva-Montes, Martha Hilaria Bartolo-Alemán, Moisés Martínez-López, Atalia Luna-Perez, Sarai Maria Martínez-Mendoza, Danny Adolfo Cordova-Mireles

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 19-25

3D printing technology made numerous contributions to the healthcare sector during the recent coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19). This review discusses some of these contributions of 3D printing that helped protect multiple lives during this health emergency and lists some of the key benefits of using 3D printing technology during an emergency over other traditional methods. This research confirms that 3D printing is very useful in times of severe supply shortages and excess demand. This review recognizes the collaborative approaches of individuals, entrepreneurs, academics, and companies that have helped form a global network to deliver 3D printed medical and nonmedical components, making additive manufacturing (3D printing) a representative alternative to produce ergonomic, cost-effective products and sustainable masks that reduce their environmental impact.