Original Research Article

COMPARISON OF THE POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT WATERSHED MANAGEMENT OPERATION IN CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF MOUNTAINOUS RANGELANDS, CASE STUDY RAZIN WATERSHED, WEST OF IRAN

YAHYA PARVIZI

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 1-12

Land carbon stock is the main carbon sink in carbon cycle and carbon sequestration in the land resource is the main hope to mitigate climate change. This research was conducted to evaluate the carbon sequestration capacity of rangeland management in mountainous rangeland in Zagros area in west of Iran. For this study, ten experimental sites in three provinces were selected. Then, rangeland management practices effects on carbon sequestration were analyzed and while prioritizing reviewed projects, proper projects for every management were recommended. Results indicated that operations including seeding, mass plantation, graze management and preservation can accordingly sequester 40.3, 77.4, 11 and 61.9 tons of carbon per hectare.

Original Research Article

PERFORMANCES OF REVERSE OSMOSIS AND NANOFILTRATION IN DESALINATION OF RIVER BRACKISH WATER

A. ZDEG, N. ZOUHRI, F. ELAZHAR, J. TOUIR, S. ELGHZIZEL, L. HASNAOUI, M. HAFSI, M. TAKY, A. ELMIDAOUI

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 29-38

As many countries in the world, Morocco is facing problems in the supply of water due to an increasing demand and decrease of conventional resources. To face the problems, Morocco proceeded since a long time to use other non conventional water resources such as wastewater reuse or desalinating water. The desalination option which was limited to south and coasts extends more and more towards the central regions.

Mrirt is among the north cities where a construction of desalination plant is expected soon. The city is far from the coast and the water to be treated is slightly brackish. The city already has a standard treatment plant of drinking water. The National Office of Electricity and Drinking Water and Ibn Tofail University decided to conduct this study to compare the performances of Reverse Osmosis and Nano filtration technologies.

The experiments are conducted using pilot plants and various commercial membranes such as BW30LE4040, NF90 and NF270. Several parameters were examined in order to optimize the system performance, including operating pressure, flux, system recovery, salt rejection and specific energy consumption (SEC).

The obtained results showed that the experiment results appear to be compatible with those obtained by the software prediction.

The experiment results  at 10 bars of feed pressure, for BW30 the values of recovery rate is 28% and 0.95 kwh/m3of energy consumption. For NF90, the recovery rate is 30% and  0.75 kwh/m3 of energy. But in the predict results, and under the same of the operating conditions pilot plant, the values of energy consumption are 0.91 of BW30 and 0.70 of NF90.

Thus, the prediction software results shows that the maximum recovery rate can be achieved to 85% at 20 l/h/m2 of average flux, andthe operating pressure needed to run the RO membrane is significantly higher (14, 6 bar as compared to 9, 90 bar) than the NF membrane.

Original Research Article

HUMAN PERCEPTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF NATURAL BARRIERS

M. A. D. SENANAYAKE, R. U. HALWATURA

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 39-55

Natural barriers are large or small closely grown tree belts, vegetation walls, natural stone structures, tree fences etc. Natural barriers, have emerged as the new trend to address problems in urban areas and has developed into vertical gardening, green roofs and hybrid natural barriers presently. The use of natural barriers is highly dependent on the human perception which is focused on natural barrier’s functionality, maintainability, effectiveness of performance, security and aesthetic appeal.

The research was carried out to identify the human perception and human acceptance of natural barriers in Sri Lankan context and find out the level of acoustic disturbance people are facing, focusing urban and suburb areas by adopting a quantitative approach via a questionnaire survey and carrying out actual sound measurements in the western province of Sri Lanka. Lack of awareness of sound levels and risk of adaptation to excessive sound levels in urban conditions were revealed in the research. It was found that traffic noise to be the main sound polluter in urban areas and actual noise levels violate the permissible limit stated in the Sri Lankan regulations. Preference for natural barriers is very high in urban community. Results revealed a high demand by public for aesthetic appeal of natural barriers.

Short Research Article

LANDFILL SITE SELECTION IN DELTA STATE NIGERIA

EGUN, NKONYEASUA KINGSLEY, EVBAYIRO, OSAGIE JUDE, UKEKO, AKPOROBARO OMOEFE

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 63-67

Solid waste management is considered as one of the most serious environmental problems confronting municipal authorities in developing countries. With rising urbanization pressurizing land availability for waste disposal; landfills are now sited in unsuitable areas especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This work reviews the literature on landfill siting techniques and brings to the fore the need for proper landfill site selection taking into cognisance significant amount of spatial information, engineering data, environmental, social and economic criteria to locate sites which protects the public and the environment in Delta State.

Short Communication

DROUGHT AND WATER SHORTAGE, A SERIOUS CRISIS FOR IRAN

HOSHIAR EHSANNIA

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 56-62

According to the existing evidence, exploiting many water resources of the country is reaching its crisis point. The water within all the major rivers has been exploited. Iran is headed for a water shortage of epic proportions, and little is being done to reverse a decades-long trend that has reduced the country’s water supply to crisis levels. Changes in the global climate, a century of rampant development and heavy subsidies for water and other utilities are all contributing to a situation that is likely to get much worse. “Our water usage is twice the world standard, and considering the situation in our country, we have to reduce this level,” Massoumeh Ebtekar, the vice president and the head of Iran’s Department of Environment, said in a recent speech. There are no considerable surface water resources available for exploitation and use. Ground water resources have also been irresponsibly used and these water supplies, which have been formed through millions of years and are practically irreplaceable, have been exploited by digging deep wells within the ground. In addition to the major cities, other population centers of the country have also faced the major alarming levels of water. We have to find a solution as soon as possible. Using a descriptive method, referring to the valid and scientific texts, interviewing with prominent professors of Universities and pundits, and investigating the reports of parliament and the cabinet about the crisis of water, this case study has been done in order to contribute to removing the problem by presenting fast, easy, and effective solutions; since continuing with the present trend in the coming years, would change Iran into a totally dry country.

Review Article

AN OVERVIEW OF MAGNETIC METHOD IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

T. A. ADAGUNODO, L. A. SUNMONU, A. A. ADENIJI

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 13-28

In modern times, the economic strength of a nation, the standard of living and independence of her citizens depend on the nation's industrial strength and her economic buoyancy. These two parameters, that is, the nation's industrial strength and the buoyancy of the industries in each country, sometimes form the bases for classifying the countries as "developed" (e.g., America and Japan) or "developing" (e.g., Nigeria and Ghana) with every nation striving to achieve the former status. The availability of the raw materials needed by most industries is one of the primary factors for the establishment of the industries. The raw material needs of most industries occur sporadically in one form or the other inside the earth's crust and the search for them as been one of man's major concerns. This paper gives the literature report about the use of magnetic method in mineral exploration. Magnetic exploration also referred to as “potential field” exploration is used to give geoscientist an indirect way to “see” beneath the Earth’s surface by sensing physical properties of rocks (magnetization). Magnetic method exploration can help locate minerals. Potential field survey is relatively inexpensive and can quickly cover large areas of ground. The method is relatively cheap, non-invasive and non-destructive environmentally speaking.

Case Report / Case Study

ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER FORESTS FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN THE NKORANZA SOUTH DISTRICT OF THE BRONG AHAFO REGION OF GHANA

DENNIS KYEREH, BEATRICE OBIRI DARKO, OLIVIA AGBENYEGA, EMMANUEL OPUNI-FRIMPONG

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, Page 68-73

The study dwelt on the potential of smallholder forests for the dual purpose of providing products for the farm household while contributing to climate change mitigation in Ghana using the Kranka, Baafi and Manso integrated mahogany forests of the Nkoranza South District as case study. It employed the use of both questionnaire sourced primary and literature review sourced secondary data. Both quantitative (use of tables and charts) and qualitative methods (use of SPSS-Statistical Package for Social Scientist and the Microsoft Excel computer application software) were used in the data analysis. The study established that smallholder farmers earn less than GH₵200 a year, perceive climate change as change in rainfall pattern and increase in temperature, and are willing to manage and retain their farms for climate change mitigation longer if enabled with carbon credits. It also established that access to initial capital is main factor that could influence planting of smallholder forests for climate change, and serving carbon credits to smallholders would influence the management of their forests. The study recommends the smallholders should be provided financial assistance to enable them increase the establishment of smallholder forests and carbon credits to enable them manage the forests.

(GH₵1=US$0.52493 as at February, 2013).