TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA: A REVIEW
Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science,
The emergence of China as one of the biggest host countries of TNE in the past decades has been indispensable to the progressive TNE policies in China. This paper systematically reviews Chinese TNE policy changes and conceptually analyses six distinctive phases of TNE policy development. It suggests a changing pattern of cautious TNE relationship with western countries to the enthusiastic establishment of TNE institutions and programs across China, followed by tightened TNE review and targeted development of TNE disciplines and models, leading to a guided TNE promotion with the Belt and Road countries in recent years and temporary expansion of TNE recruitments in the current pandemic China. The paper argues that TNE policy changes always keep pace with the strategic development of China as evidenced in the current focus of a dual-way TNE of ‘draw-in’ and ‘going-out’.
- Transnational education
- policy impact
How to Cite
Altbach P, Knight J. The internationalization of higher education: motives and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education. 2007; 11(3–4):290–305.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-foreign Co-operation in Running Schools; 2003.
Mok KH, Han X. From ‘brain Drain’ to ‘brain bridging’: transnational higher education development and graduate employment in China. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. 2016;38(3):369-389.
Yang R. Transnational HE in China: Contexts, characteristics and concerns. Australian Journal of Education. 2008;52(3):272-286.
Tan Z, Liu HF. The history, current situation and prospect of Sino-foreign cooperation in running undergraduate colleges and universities in China, Chinese Higher Education. 2019;12:10-12.
Zhang XP. A comparative study on the laws and regulations of Sino foreign cooperative education in mainland China and non-local curriculum in Hong Kong in China's Education Policy Evaluation. Education Science Press. 2006;91-196.
Liu SY. Analysis of TNE policies in higher education in Jiangsu Province [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Nanjing Normal University; 2011.
Meng SS. A case study of sino-foreign cooperative education in higher vocational colleges [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Xi’nan University; 2018.
Zhao JY. Research on the development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in higher education in Hebei Province [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Heibei University of Economics and Business; 2020.
Shen L. Research on establishment and influence of Gezhi Academy in Qing Dynasty. Lantai World. 2015;2:84-85.
Sun BH. Fryer and Shanghai Gazi Academy. Philosophy and Humanities. Modern Chinese History. 1991;6:127-145.
Xu ZL. Reflections on ‘educational sovereignty’ in the background of globalization-study on Sino-foreign cooperation in higher education [Unpublished master’s thesis]. East China Normal University; 2014.
Wu ZX. The revolution research on the policy of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Northwest Agriculture and Forest University; 2013.
Wang ZQ. Phase characteristics and strategy suggestions on the development of TNE, The Modern Educational Journal. 2015;203(3):47-51.
Hu JY. TNE new development under the context of the Belt and Road, Journal of Inner Mongolia Normal University (Philosophy & Social science). 2018;47(6):97-99.
Xue S. The historical evolution and characteristics of TNE policy, Coal Higher Education. 2006;24(3):18-21.
Liu MP. A study on the strategy of Chinese education going out under the government’s domination [Unpublished master’s thesis]. School of Teacher Education of Zhejiang Normal University; 2017.
Ren F. Research on the policy implementation of sino-foreign cooperation in running schools under the background of international of higher education [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Henan University; 2016.
The State Education Commission, PRC. Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Reform of the Educational System; 1985.
Zhou H, Pan FF, Liu S, Aisin Gioro X. An analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese foreign cooperation in running schools. Journal of Beijing Union University (Humanities and Social Science Edition). 2020;18(3):96-105.
Tan Z. Historical research on cooperation between China and foreign partners in the operation or management of higher education institutions. Journal of Zhengzhou University. 2010;43(3):167-170.
Zhang WS, Wang SZ, Hou T, Wang Y. An analysis on the policy changes in Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools and its motivation. Journal of Jiangxi Institute of Education (Social Sciences). 2014;35(2):72- 75.
Ministry of Commerce, PRC. Discussion on Deng Xiaoping’s two historical contributions; 2004.
Ding JJ. Research on the quality of TNE programmes [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Qingdao University; 2015.
Min WF. Chinese higher education: The legacy of the past and the context of the future. In P.G. Altbach & T. umakoshi (Eds): Asian universities: Historical perspectives and contemporary challenges. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 2004;53-84.
The National People’s Congress, PRC. Education Act of the People’s Republic of China; 1995.
The State Education Commission, PRC. Interim Provisions for Chinese-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools; 1995.
Tang N, Nollent A. UK-China-Hongkong Transnational Education, Report to the British Council: Sheffield Hallam University, UK; 2007.
The National People’s Congress, PRC. The Higher Education Act of the People’s Republic of China; 1999.
Lei TE. Transnational education: history, current situation and future, Journal Articles of Lanzhou. 2008;183(12):203-205.
Jin W. The policy changes in the internationalization of Chinese higher education since the 1980s: An integrative analysis of statistics and policies, Renming University of China Education Journal. 2012; 4:29-48.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Implementation of Regulations of People’s Republic of China on Chinese-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools; 2004.
Lu GS, Kang H, Yan N. On the current situation, problems and development countermeasures of Sino-foreign cooperative education. Research in Higher Education of Engineering. 2013;4:75-80.
Yang JF. An approach to balance the public welfare and profitability in TNE in the new era. Public Governance. 2019;24:106-109.
[Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice on the Review and Check of TNE Programs and Institutions; 2004.
Nix JV. Sino-U.S. transnational education-‘buying’ an American education program: A participant observation study [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Washington University; 2009.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Opinions on Several Issues in Current TNE; 2006.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice on Further Specification of Orders of TNE; 2007.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice on the Evaluation of TNE and Evaluation Scheme for TNE Institutions and Programmes (Trial); 2009.
Yang Z, Bai YQ. Policy analysis of transnational education, Helongjiang Research on Higher Education. 2012;213(1):51-53.
Office of the Working Group on the Outline of the National Medium- and Long-Term Education Reform and Development Plan. National Medium and Long-term Plan for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020); 2010.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice of the List of the First Batch of Approved TNE Programmes; 2010a.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice of the List of the Second Batch of Approved TNE Programmes; 2010b.
Liu BC, Zhang JQ. The historical survey of the evolution of education opening-up policies in China’s 40 years of reform and opening-up. Journal of Higher Education Management. 2018;12(6):1-13.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Notice on Strengthening the Standardized Management of Foreign-related Schools; 2012.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Opinions on Further Strengthening the Quality Assurance of TNE in Higher Education; 2013.
Ren L, Tian J. Construction of ‘double first-class HEIs’, a statistic report of TNE in undergraduate HEIs; 2020.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Plan for the Construction of Modern Vocational Education System; 2014.
Ministry of Education PRC. Notice about Pilot Evaluation in Vocational Colleges; 2015.
The State Council, PRC. Overall Plan for Comprehensively Promoting the Construction of World-class Universities and First-class Disciplines; 2015.
Liu Q. Development status and strategy of TNE programmes, Journal of Xiamen City Vocational College. 2019;21(1):26-33.
Lin JH. Research on construction of TNE quality, University of Ximen Press; 2014.
China Education Association for International Exchange. 100 TNE Questions & Answers (pdf); 2016.
Zhu MJ. The problems and solutions of government regulation on Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools in higher education in China [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Electronic Science Technology of China; 2020.
Xiong JH. The road of TNE in the 40 years of reform and opening up; 2019.
Liu J. Study on the development strategy for Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools on the bachelor’s degree and above level in Shandong Province [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Shandong University of Finance and Economics; 2016.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Promoting the Construction of the Belt and Road Educational Action; 2016.
The National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Commerce, PRC. Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-century Maritime Silk Road; 2015.
Li HZ, Lin SY, Liu J. A study of higher education cooperation between China and the Belt and Road countries, Journal of Hebei Normal University (Education Science Edition). 2019;21(5):80-89.
Ma WH. The Belt and Road Initiative and the change of higher education internationalization in China. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Social Science Edition). 2021;34(1):134-142.
Ministry of Education Ministry of Finance National Development and Reform Commission, PRC. Opinions on the Implementation of the Plan of Constructing High-Level Vocational Universities and Colleges with Chinese characteristics; 2019.
Kang H, Dang J, Huang XZ. Current situation, problems and strategies of TNE in vocational colleges. Journal of Education and Career. 2020;967(15):35-39.
The State Council, PRC. Opinions on Strengthening and Promoting Cultural Exchanges between China and Foreign Countries; 2017.
Zan Q, Zuo FL. Research improving quality of TNE programmes in universities. Journal of University Education. 2021;36-39.
British Chamber of Commerce in China. The Belt and Road Education Report; 2019.
Available:http://britishchamber.cn/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/the belt and road (Chinese version).pdf
Ministry of Education, PRC. Guidelines for Running Colleges and Universities Overseas (Trial); 2019. Edition.
The National People’s Congress, PRC. The Outline of the Thirteenth Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development (2016-2020); 2016.
The State Council, PRC. China’s Education Modernisation. 2019;2035.
Ministry of Education & Ministry of Finance National Development and Reform Commission, PRC. Opinions on the Implementation of the Plan of Constructing High-Level Vocational Universities and Colleges with Chinese characteristics; 2019.
Lin JH, Ling Q. The High-quality development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools: the policy track and policy supply. Journal of Higher Education Management. 2021;15(6):1-12.
Ministry of Education and other eight ministries, PRC. Opinions on Accelerating and Expanding Opening-up Education in the New Era; 2020.
MoE and other nine central governments, PRC. Action Plan to Improve the quality of Vocational Education (2020-2023); 2020.
Ministry of Education, PRC. Take full advantages of TNE to alleviate the difficulties of studying abroad; 2020.
Ministry of Education, PRC. The Ministry of Education continues to support the use of Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools and other means to alleviate the difficulties of our students studying abroad under the influence of the epidemic; 2021a.
The State Council, PRC. Opinions on Promoting the High-quality Development of Modern Vocational Education; 2021.
Ministry of Education, PRC. MoE’s 2021 key working points; 2021b.
Ministry of Education, PRC. MoE’s 2022 key working points; 2022.
Abstract View: 42 times
PDF Download: 5 times