MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG THIRTY-SEVEN Chenopodium quinoa GENOTYPES UNDER ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION

Main Article Content

AHMED MEDHAT MOHAMED Al-NAGGAR
ABD EL-SAMAD MAHMOUD YOUNIS
MOHAMED MOHAMED ATTA
MAISA LOTFY ABD EL-MONEIM
MARIAM SABRY AL-METWALLY

Abstract

Assessing the genetic diversity among quinoa germplasm is of prime importance for its effective utilization in breeding programs. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate the magnitude of genetic diversity, based on phenotypic data, among 37 quinoa genotypes, under organic and/or inorganic fertilizer conditions and assess interrelationships between seed yield and its related traits under both environments. Two experiments were carried out in two seasons; the 1st experiment under organic fertilization and the 2nd under mineral fertilization conditions. A randomized complete blocks design with three replications was used. Principle component analysis (PCA) and GT-Biplot technique were used. Quinoa genotypes recorded significant differences (P≤0.01) for all studied traits under each environment. The promising genotype(s) for each trait were identified. Results of GT-biplot indicated that the traits, branches/plant, seed diameter, seed yield/plant, seed nitrogen content, biological yield/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed oil content, plant height, inflorescence diameter, inflorescences/plant and chlorophyll concentration index were strongly correlated with seed yield/ha, had high estimates of heritability and genetic advance and thus could be considered as secondary traits for high seed yield either under organic or inorganic fertilization. The clustering analysis assigned the 37 quinoa genotypes into three groups. The highest genetic dissimilarity Euclidean coefficients were recorded between G23 and each of G8, G34, G4, G9, G24 and G5; they are the most unrelated genotypes, but the lowest dissimilarity was between G13 and G26, they are the most related genotypes. The identified promising genotypes and secondary traits could be offered to quinoa breeders for use in future breeding programs to improve seed yield.

Keywords:
Cluster an alysis, GT-biplot, principle component analysis, quinoa

Article Details

How to Cite
Al-NAGGAR, A. M. M., YOUNIS, A. E.-S. M., ATTA, M. M., EL-MONEIM, M. L. A., & AL-METWALLY, M. S. (2022). MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG THIRTY-SEVEN Chenopodium quinoa GENOTYPES UNDER ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION. PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 23(7-8), 72-93. Retrieved from https://ikppress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/7473
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ihuoma O. Quinoa Genetics. In Varma A. (ed.), Biology and Biotechnology of Quinoa. Springer, Singapore. 2021;51-77. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-3832-9_4

Bhargava A, Ohri D. Origin of genetic variability and improvement of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). In Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement; Rajpal, V.R., Rao, S., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland; 2016.

Ruiz K, Biondi S, Oses R, Acuña I, Antognoni F, Martínez E, Coulibaly A, Canahua A, Pinto M, Zurita A, Bazile D, Jacobsen S, Molina M. Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review. Agron. Sustain.Dev. 2014;34(2):349-359.

Ruiz KB, Biondi S, Martínez EA, Orsini F, Antognoni F, Jacobsen SE.

Quinoa–a model crop for understanding salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes. Plant

Biosystems-An Int. J. Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biol. 2016;150:357–371.

Jacobsen SE, Liu F, Jensen CR. Does root-sourced ABA play a role for regulation of stomata under drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Sci. Hortic. 2009;122:281–287.

Hariadi Y, Marandon K, Tian Y, Jacobsen SE, Shabala S Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels. J Exp Bot. 2010;62:185–193.

Jacobsen SE, Hill J, Stolen O. Stability of quantitative traits in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 1996;93:110–116.

Bhargava A, Shukla S, Rajan S, Ohri D. Genetic diversity for morphological and quality traits in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) germplasm. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2007;54:167–173. DOI 10.1007/s10722-005-3011-0

Rodríguez LA, Isla MT. Comparative analysis of genetic and morphologic diversity among quinoa accessions (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) of the South of Chile and highland accessions. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 2009;1:210–216.

Gonzalez JA, Konishi Y, Bruno M, Valoy M, Prado FE. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:1222–1229.

Cargnelutti Filho A, Storck L, Ribeiro ND. Medidas da precisão experimental em ensaios com genótipos de feijão e de soja. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 2009;44(10):1225-1231.

Vasconcelos ES, Hoeper LML, Amaral RG, Egawart EA, Strenske A. Genetic parameters and productivity of quinoa in western Paraná State, Brazil. Acta Sci Agron. 2016;38:185–191.

Manjarres-Hernández EH, Arias-Moreno DM, Morillo-Coronado AC, Ojeda-Pérez ZZ, Cárdenas-Chaparro A. Phenotypic Characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for the Selection of Promising Materials for Breeding Programs. Plants. 2021;10:1339. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071339

EL-Harty EH, Ghazy A, Alateeq TK, Al-Faifi SA, Khan MA, Afzal M, Alghamdi SS, Migdadi HM. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Quinoa Genotypes. Agriculture. 2021;11:286. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040286

Ajmal SU, Minhas NM, Hamdani A, Shakir A, Zubair M, Ahmad Z. Multivariate analysis of genetic divergence in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm. Pak. J. Bot. 2013;45(5):1643- 1648.

Malik R, Sharma H, Sharma I, Kundu S Verma A, et al. Genetic diversity of agromorphological characters in Indian wheat varieties using GT biplot. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 2014;8:1266-1271.

Mohammadi SA, Prasanna BM, Singh NN. Sequential path model for determining interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in maize. Crop Sci. 2003;43:1690-1697.

Morillo A, Manjarres E, Morillo Y. Evaluación morfoagronómica de 19 materiales de Chenopodium quinoa en el Departamento de Boyacá. Biotecnol. Sect. Agropecu. Y Agroind. 2020;18:84–96. [CrossRef]

Akcura M, Kokten K. Variations in grain mineral concentrations of Turkish wheat landraces germplasm. Qual. Assur. Saf. Crops Foods. 2017;9:153-159.

Espinola G, Gandarillas H. Study of correlated characters and their effects on quinoa yield. Bol Genetico. 1985;13:47–54.

Risi JC, Galwey NW. The pattern of genetic diversity in the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). I. Associations between characteristics. Euphytica. 1989;41: 147–162.

Al-Naggar AMM, Abd El-Salam RM, Badran AEE, El-Moghazi Mai MA. Heritability and interrelationships for agronomic, physiological and yield traits of quinoa (Chinopodium quinoa Willd.) under elevated water stress. Archives of Current Research International. 2017a;10(3):1-15.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edn., McGraw-Hill, Singapore; 1997.

Yan W, Hunt LA, Sheng Q, Szlavnics Z. Cultivar evaluation and mega-environment investigation based on the GGE biplot. Crop. Sci. 2000;40:597-605.

Yan W, Tinker NA. An integrated biplot analysis system for displaying, interpreting and exploring genotype x environment interaction. Crop Sci. 2005;45:1004-1016.

Addinsoft. XLSTAT statistical and data analysis solution. Boston, USA; 2014.

Beyene Y, Botha AM, Myburg AA. A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing genetic relationships in traditional Ethiopian highland maize. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2005;4:596-600.

Rojas W, Barriga P, Figueroa H. Multivariate analysis of genetic diversity of Bolivian quinoa germplasm. Food Rev Int. 2003;19:9–23.

Fuentes F, Bhargava A. Morphological analysis of quinoa germplasm grown under lowland desert conditions. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 2011;197:124–134. [CrossRef]

Rodríguez JP, Rahman H, Thushar S, Singh RK. Healthy and Resilient Cereals and Pseudo-Cereals for Marginal Agriculture: Molecular Advances for Improving Nutrient Bioavailability. Front. Genet. 2020;11: 49. [CrossRef]

Allende MJ. Caracterización Morfológica y Molecular de Accesiones de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Para Estimar Variabilidad Genética; 2017.

Available:http://repositorio.lamolina.edu.pe/handle/UNALM/2935 (accessed on 25 March 2021).

Le S, Josse J, Husson F, Facto Mine R. An R Package for Multivariate Analysis. J. Stat. Softw. 2008;25:1–18. [CrossRef]

Vergara RDO, Martins ABN, Soares VN, Carvalho IR, Barbosa MH, Conte GG, Gadotti GI, Ludke R, Villela FA. Agronomic and morphological haracteristics of quinoa grown in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. Rev. Bras. Eng. E Sustentabilidade. 2020;8:18–25. [CrossRef]

García-Parra M, Zurita-Silva A. Stechauner-Rohringer, R.; Roa-Acosta, D.; Jacobsen, S.-E. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and its relationship with agroclimatic characteristics: A Colombian perspective. Chil. J. Agric. Res. 2020;80:290–302. [CrossRef]

Bazile D, Bertero D, Nieto C. State of the Art Report of Quinoa in the World in 2013; FAO & IRAD: Rome, Italy; 2015.

Al-Naggar AMM, Atta MM, Abd El-Moneim Maisa L, Al-Metwally Mariam S. Heritability, genetic advance and trait interrelationships of Chenopodium quinoa under low, medium and high n organic and mineral fertilizer conditions. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 2022;23(5&6):52-73

Available:https://www.ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/7426

Sultana R. Molecular and morphological characterization of maize genotypes for opaque 2 gene and yield contributing traits. Big. Data Agric. 2019;1:3-10.

Bhargava A, Shukla S, Ohri D. Genetic variability and heritability of selected traits during different cuttings of vegetable Chenopodium. Ind. J. Genet. Plant Breed. 2003;63:359–360.

Spehar CR, Santos RLD. Agronomic performance of Quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah. Pesq. Agrop. Brasil. 2005;40(6):609–612.

Bhargava A, Shukla S, Ohri D. Chenopodium quinoa. An Indian perspective. Ind Crops Prod. 2006;23:73–87.

Al-Naggar AMM, Shafik MM, Musa RYM, Younis ASM, Anany AH. Genetic variability of maize hybrids and populations and interrelationships among grain yield and its related traits under drought and low N using multivariate analysis. Asian J. Biochem., Genet. Mol. Biol. 2020a;4:26-44.

Al-Naggar AMM, Shafik MM, Musa RYM. Genetic diversity based on morphological traits of 19 maize genotypes using principal component analysis and GT biplot. Ann. Res. Rev. Biol. 2020b;35: 68-85.

Younis ASM, Nassar SMA, Al-Naggar AMM, Bakry BA. Phenotypic assessment of genetic diversity among twenty groundnut genotypes under well-watered and water-stressed conditions using multivariate analysis. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2020;19(4):474-486.

Al-Naggar AMM, Atta MMM, Abd El-Moneim Maisa L, Al-Metwally Mariam S. Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer with reduced nitrogen level on growth, nitrogen use efficiency, seed yield and quality traits of Chenopodium quinoa. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 2021;22(71&72):438-453. Available:https://ikprress.org/index.php/PCBMB/article/view/7323