PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY <p><strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (ISSN: 0972-2025)</strong> journal is published by I. K. Press from Volume 14. <strong>PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY</strong> is the official journal of <strong>Society for Biology and Biotechnology</strong>, Kannankurichi-P.O Salem-636 008, Tamil Nadu State, India.</p> <p><strong>The Scope of Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (PCBMB) (ISSN: 0972-2025) includes</strong><br>1. Plant Science related research (including all branches of Plant Science like Agronomy, Algology and Phycology, Bacteriology, Bryology, Mycology, Paleobotany, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Pteridology, etc)<br>2. Cell Biology (including all branches of Cell Biology)<br>3. Biotechnology (including all branches of Biotechnology)<br>4. Molecular Biology (including all branches of Molecular Biology)<br>This international English-language journal includes papers exploring both basic and applied aspects of the above-mentioned areas.</p> International Knowledge Press en-US PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 0972-2025 STUDY ON GENETIC VARIATION OF KELEMBAK (Rheum officinale Baill.) USING RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA <p><strong>Kelembak (<em>Rheum officinale</em> Baill.) is native to mainland Central China and is reported as an endangered medicinal plant. This plant in Indonesia is distributed in mountainous areas; the center of rhubarb cultivation is in the Dieng Plateau. Mainly, this plant is grown for the roots as herbal medicine material (kelembak jamu) and in the industry for cigarette ingredients (kelembak Jawa). This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of nine accessions of <em>R. officinale</em>. Six selected RAPD primers were used to amplify the samples and produced 33 DNA fragments ranging from 270-2,710 bp. The genetic similarity ranged from 74.58% to 100% using the Dice similarity index. The dendrogram divided <em>R. officinale</em> into two main clusters separated between kelembak jamu and kelembak jawa. Cluster analysis revealed that Mangli accession (kelembak jamu) had a closer similarity to kelembak Jawa. The narrow genetic diversity of kelembak is essential information for future conservation and management programs in the cultivation of this species.</strong></p> DYAH SUBOSITI DIAN SUSANTI HARTO WIDODO DEVI SAFRINA ROHMAT MUJAHID YULI WIDIYASTUTI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-28 2022-10-28 68 74 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387911 INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF GENOTYPE AND WATER DEFICIT ON YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS OF MAIZE INBRED LINES AND F1 DIALLEL CROSSES <p><strong>Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) is vulnerable to drought stress at flowering stage, which has a detrimental impact on yield characteristics. Drought tolerance is genotype dependent.&nbsp; The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Water Deficit Stress (WDS) at flowering stage, genotype and their interaction on some agronomic, physiologic, grain yield and quality traits of 8 maize inbred lines and their 28 diallel crosses and also attempt to identify the maize genotypes tolerant to WDS conditions. The parents and F<sub>1</sub> crosses were evaluated in two seasons. A split plot design with three replications was used, where main plots were allotted to two irrigation treatments, i.e., Well Watering (WW) by giving all recommended irrigations and WDS by withholding the 4<sup>th</sup> and 5<sup>th</sup> irrigations, while sub plots were allotted to genotypes. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease in grain yield/plant (32.3%), grain yield/ha (26.7%), ears/plant (30.6%), rows/ear (10.2%), kernels/row (9.3%), kernels/plant (43.8%), 100-kernel weight (19.9%), plant height (8.5%), ear height (11.9%), and chlorophyll concentration index (17.3%) and a significant increase in anthesis-silking interval (58.82 %), days to anthesis (4.29%), days to silking (6.40%), barren stalks (20.0%), and grain protein content (16.0%). On average, means across F<sub>1</sub> crosses were higher than those across inbreds for all studied traits, except for grain protein content and days to 50% silking, where the opposite was true, under both WDS and WW conditions. The rank of inbreds and crosses for studied traits under WDS was changed from that under WW conditions. The reduction in grain yield/ha of inbred lines due to drought (37.36%) was generally higher than that in F<sub>1</sub> hybrids (25.67%). It was possible to identify some inbreds and hybrids characterized by high yield and high tolerance to WDS conditions, which were recommended for use in breeding programs for improving drought tolerance in maize.</strong></p> AHMED MEDHAT MOHAMED AL-NAGGAR AHMED MONGED SOLIMAN ELHAM MOHAMED HASSAN MOHAMED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-18 2022-10-18 51 67 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387899 CLONAL VARIATION OF GROWING AND MAHOGANY (Swietenia macrophylla King) CLONE SELECTION IN AN ASEXUAL SEED ORCHARD <p><strong><em>Swietenia macrophylla</em></strong><strong> King. (Mahogany) is a tropical tree of timber use which is classified as one of the principal economic and forest important native species in Latin-American. There are few works about germplasm of superior genetically trees. This germplasm source is very important to establish commercial forestry plantations. For this reason, the objective of this work was to select superior clones from an asexual seed orchard which was established in September 2014. The orchard was established under a randomized complete block experimental design in a royal frame of distance 4x4 m, in which 50 clones (</strong><strong>ortet) with 49 replicates (ramet) were cultured obtaining 2,450 ramets in total. Variables evaluated were total height, clean stem height, normal diameter and crown diameter. It was carried out a principal components analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, a test of comparison of means using the Tukey test at 5% of probability level (p≤0.05) and a conglomerate analysis was carried out. From 50 clones, it was identified 16 genetically superior materials: 1-CaLK149, 28-CaNB23; 23-CaNB48; 7-CaLK147; 20-CaNB14; 14-CaNB26; 25-CaNP132; 3-CaNP143; 9-CaB102; 24-CaLK147; 18-CaNB24; 19-CaNB19; 11-CaNB26; 13-CaNB21; 29-CaNB19; 21-CaNB26, these materials showed an average of 8.6±0.3 m of total height, 2.4±0.1 m of clean trunk height, 0.13±0.0 m of normal diameter and 4.3±0.2 m of tree crown diameter. Those clone groups identified as superior trees were recommended to continue in a forest breeding program.</strong></p> JOSÉ VIDAL COB UICAB BARTOLO RODRÍGUEZ SANTIAGO GILBERT JOSÉ HERRERA COOL ÁNGEL JAVIER CAMMAL COLLÍ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 17 25 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387894 CHITOSAN AND AMINO ACIDS-COATED NANOPARTICLES POSITIVELY ALTERED ATROPINE ACCUMULATION, THE GENE EXPRESSION OF Tropinone reductase 1 AND THE YIELD OF Datura innoxia MILL <p><strong>Two consecutive seasons (2020 and 2021) were held for cultivating <em>Datura innoxia</em> Mill as a medicinal plant for increasing the production of seeds and active ingredients as a native goal for our economy by using several aspects of chitosan (bulky and nanoparticles) as a biocompatible and biodegradable substance because of its crustacean origin and amino acids (individually and loaded onto chitosan nanoparticles). Data showed that formulated chitosan nanoparticles 100 mg/L loaded with methionine 40 mg/L gave an excellent record of fruit number per plant and seed weight per plant, and the highest protein content combined with the lowest range of the toxic compound malondialdehyde. Additionally, applying chitosan nanoparticles 50 mg/L coated with methionine 40 mg/L to <em>D. innoxia</em> plants resulted in the highest accumulation of atropine alkaloid and several polypeptides in the protein electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) when compared with control. Furthermore, in the roots of <em>D. innoxia</em>, where tropane alkaloids are synthesized, this application induced the expression of the tropinone reductase 1 (DiTR1) gene, a key gene in the synthesis of tropane alkaloids. So, the target of using nanotechnology applications (chitosan nanoparticles functionalized with methionine) in agriculture, especially medicinal plants, to increase yield and secondary metabolites has proven helpful, according to our findings. Future biological studies for these treatments are recommended, in order to test their safety on plants and humans.</strong></p> ASMAA A. MAHDI MOHAMED N. S. SULIMAN KHALED Y. FARROH OMRAN GHALY EMAD SALEH HAMED HAMDI M. IBRAHIM ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 26 50 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387895 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION BY GC-MS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF PEELS AND LEAVES EXTRACTS FROM Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis AND Citrus reticulata <p><strong><em>Citrus</em></strong><strong> family especially lemon, mandarin and orange, have reached important attention due to the presence of several components with different therapeutic properties. The leaves and peels of non-polar extracts from bio-citrus cultivars were investigated for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity. The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)</strong> <strong>activity and phosphommolybdenum antioxidant effect values from leaves and peels ranged from 0 to 12.79% and 0.006 to 0.14 mg/ml AAeq respectively. Results showed significant differences in antioxidant properties of leaves and peels extracts. The leaves of mandarin exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than the other extracts from lemon and orange. Among different components identified from the organic extracts, limonene, myrcene, and benzopyran were major components in all samples.</strong></p> HADJER BOUSSOUSSA IHCEN KHACHEBA SARA BOUKHALKHAL YASMINE LAMRI AHLAM BOUTI ARTUR M. S. SILVA MOHAMED YOUSFI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-08 2022-10-08 86 90 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367885 IMPROVING DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE IN POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L.) USING MAGNETITE AND ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES <p><strong>Potato is a very sensitive to drought stresses, necessitates specific amounts and quality of water. Making substantial changes to increasing tolerances are not easily due to their narrow genetic base. Researchers developed many techniques to reduce the effects of abiotic stress. In current work we studied the effect Nano Particles of Zinc dioxide (ZnO-NPs) and Magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-NPs) at (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 ppm) in elevating the negative effect of drought stress (Sorbitol) at (0.0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Mm) on micropropagation, microtuberization and some biochemical characters, using two potato cultivars (Almond, and Picasso). Maximum mean values were achieved by Almond cultivar and by ZnO-NP in most vegetative, harvesting parameters <em>in vitro</em>. In experiment 1: increases sorbitol levels caused reduction in all parameters inversely, and growth was stopped completely by (0.40) M which considered as a lethal dose to potato explants for both cultivars. In experiment 2: results illustrated that, significant improved due to add nanoparticles of ZnO or Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> at two concentrations (2.50 and 5.00) ppm on all morphological, harvesting parameters at 0.40 M and 0.3 M of sorbitol. About secondary metabolites: the maximum record of flavonoids (querecetin and kaempferol)</strong> <strong>and antioxidant capacity was achieved by Almond with sorbitol 0.3M. Almond also recorded the maximum mean of quercetin, kaempferol and, DPPH scavenging activity was decreased in sorbitol 0.3M for both NPs treatments. At 0.4M, secondary enhanced accumulation metabolites and scavenging activity especially at ZnO NPs (5 ppm) and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> NPs (2.5 ppm), in quercetin and kaempferol with Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4-</sub>NPs (5.0 ppm).</strong></p> AMIRA R. SALLAM ASMAA A. MAHDI KHALED Y. FARROH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-08 2022-10-08 1 16 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i37-387886 TAXONOMIC STUDY OF FRESHWATER ALGAE FROM WATER BODIES IN HALLOKI VILLAGE, LAHORE, PAKISTAN <p>Halloki village Lahore was explored for freshwater algae and 7 samples were collected from different sites (Freshwater ponds, marshy areas, irrigated channels, watered field, road side streams, etc) during October 2020 to April 2021. Total nineteen genera and thirty four species of algae belonging to three kingdoms; Monera, Protista and Protoctista were recorded for the very first time from Halloki village Lahore, Pakistan, rest of them have previously been reported other sites of Lahore <em>(lil. cit). </em>Kingdom Monera included one phylum Cyanophycota (8.82%) containing 1 class, 1 order, 2 families, 2 genera and 3 species i.e. <em>Oscillatoria irrigua, O. tenuis </em>and<em> Anabaena aequalius. </em>Kingdom Protista was found to be most abundant having three phyla; Volvophycota (29.40%), Euglenophycota (2.94%) and Bacillariophycota (29.41%) containing 4 classes, 6 orders, 11 families, 13 genera and 21 species i.e. <em>Crucigenia quadrata, Closteridium lunula, Palmodictyon viride, P. varium, Cosmarium subcreantum, Closterium lanceolatum, C. acerosum, C. parvulum, C. cornu var. arcum, C. lunula var. lunula f. biconvexum, Euglena polymorpha, Cymbella affinis, Nitzchia vasnii, N. palea, Acanthes trigibba, Navicula disjuncta, N. microspora, N. exigua, Anomoeoneis exilis, Synedra ulna </em>and<em> Melosira varaians.</em> Kingdom Protoctista included one phylum Chlorophycota (29.40%) containing 2 classes Ulvophyceae (11.76%) and Zynemophyceae (17.64%) respectively, 4 orders, 4 families, 4 genera and 10 species i.e. <em>Microspora ameona, M. crassior, M. pachyderma, Ulothrix subconstricta, Oedogonium nodulosum, Spirogyra condensata, S. aplanospora, S. intorta, S. bullata and S. acquinoctialis.</em></p> TOOBA ZIA GHAZALA BUTT FATIMA ARIF HASSAN NAWAZ SABA ZAFAR AMINA FAREED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-10-06 2022-10-06 64 85 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367878 DNA BARCODING OF SOME ZYGOPHYLLACEAE SPECIES IN THE EGYPTIAN FLORA <p>DNA barcoding is gaining a high popularity and due to its simplicity and high accuracy as compared to the complexity associated with morphological identification of taxa. Therefore, we tested the potential of the rbcL, matK and ITS f markers for the identification of wild plants belonging to diverse Zygophyllaceae species from different sites of Egypt. Maximum likelihood tree analysis was performed to evaluate the resolution power of each marker to discriminate species. The analyses of nucleotide sequences of rbcL, matK and ITS revealed that the topology of the rbcL tree was the best resolved which enabled identification of the majority of the species, perfectly. Therefore, we can suggest use of the rbcL region as an additional tool for phylogenetic analysis in Zygophyllaceae species. We recommend this study for any further studies on Zygophyllaceae family and contribution to taxonomical researches by adding a new dimension to the Egyptian flora.</p> RASHA M. A. KHALIL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-26 2022-09-26 53 63 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367864 EFFECT OF FRESHWATER ALGAE ON GROWTH OF Brassica oleracea L.VAR. MADHURI & PELICAN <p>An experiment was conducted in Phycology Lab Department of Botany, Government College University Lahore, to investigate the effect of freshwater algae on the seedling and vegetative growth of <em>Brassica oleracea</em> L. Var. Madhuri and Pelican. Different concentrations of FLF (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and control) were prepared. The parameters like GP, MGT, GI, GE, and SVI were measured. In in-vitro experiment, the readings like GP. GM, GE, MGT and SVI were maximum at 100% FLF concentrations. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth rate, nitrogen content, crude protein content and epicotyl length were maximum at 100% FLF concentration for <em>Brassica oleracea</em> L. Var. Madhuri &amp; Pelican. In ex-vitro experiment, 75% FLF concentration proves effective in increasing TSL, RL, SL, and FW as compared to 25%, 50% &amp; 100% FLF concentration and control. In vegetative growth experiment, the parameters like TPH, GP, RL increase with increase in FLF concentrations upto a certain limit. The plants which are given 75% of FLF concentrations show increase in growth as compared to the plants given high (100%) and low (25% &amp; 50%) FLF concentrations and control. The plants treated with 100% FLF concentration has more ionic content. Amount of sodium, potassium and nitrogen present in plants treated with 100% FLF concentration is high as compared to plants treated with 25%, 50% and 75% FLF concentrations and control.</p> AMINA FAREED GHAZALA YASMEEN BUTT SYEDA RIDA ZAHRA TOOBA ZIA UMAL BASHIR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-19 2022-09-19 30 52 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367859 MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL POTENCY OF SELECTED HALOPHYTE SPECIES AND THEIR MODULATION ON ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE AGAINST DENGUE VECTOR: Aedes aegypti <p>A mangrove is an ecosystem that represents a natural product reservoir of biotechnological&nbsp; interest. They have been advocated as environmentally benign alternatives to synthetic pesticides against all vector mosquitos. The purpose of this study was to determine the larvicidal activities of selected mangrove plant extracts against <em>Aedes aegypti</em> mosquito larvae. Methanol extracts of three selected halophytes viz. <em>Lumnitzera racemosa</em>, <em>Bruguiera</em> <em>cylindrica</em>, and <em>Excoecaria agallocha</em> were made, phytochemically investigated and evaluated against <em>A. aegypti</em> early 4<sup>th </sup>instar larvae. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated, followed by DNA extraction and fragmentation tests. GC-MS technique was used to determine the presence of bioactive chemicals. Alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanin, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and quinones were found in all&nbsp;plants. The best larvicidal activity was recorded in the <em>L. racemosa</em> flower buds (LC<sub>50</sub>- 0.766 mg/ml) and <em>E. agallocha</em> stem extract (LC<sub>50</sub>- 0.986 mg/ml).&nbsp; <em>L. racemosa</em> flower buds and<em> E. agallocha</em> stem exhibited higher inhibition in Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with the rate of 1.39 μmol ACT/min/mg protein and 1.65 μmol ACT/min/mg protein (p &lt; 0.05) in treated larvae. In the case of <em>L. racemosa</em> flower buds, however, enhanced GST activity was detected. Plant extracts were found not to cause any fragmentation activity in the larval DNA. 5 major peaks of chemical compounds were analyzed in<em> L. racemosa</em> and <em>E. agallocha</em>. Because of the possible larvicidal action of selected halophyte extracts, they can be utilized as ecologically friendly mosquitocide for eradicating dengue vector larvae in their early stages.</p> PRATIK P. DHAVAN . RANJANA BHASKAR LAXMAN JADHAV ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 1 14 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367856 MONOCULTURING OF SOME FRESH WATER ALGAE FROM A WATER BODY IN NASIR BAGH ON CHU#10 MEDIUM <p>Microalgal samples were collected for monoculture of some freshwater algae from Nasir Bagh, Lahore. The samples were observed under the microscope and were taxonomically identified. Three microalgal species were selected for monoculture. The species were <em>Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Nitzschia scalpelliformis</em>. The microalgae were separated from other microalgae with the help of Pasteur pipette. For monoculturing CHU # 10 medium was selected and growth was checked. Results unveiled that <em>Scenedesmus obliquus</em> showed higher biomass weight on 9<sup>th</sup> day of inoculation that is 1.00g. it was decreased from 12<sup>th</sup> to 21<sup>st</sup> day (0.90 to 0.06). Growth rate was also decreased from -0.006 to -0.027. The net weight gain of algal biomass of <em>Scanadesmus obliques</em> is 0.50g and total growth g/day of it is 0.002. In case of <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em>. Results showed highest biomass weight on 12<sup>th</sup> day of inoculation that is 1.13 g. It was decreased from 15<sup>th</sup> to 21<sup>st</sup> day (1.00 g to 0.48 g).&nbsp; The growth rate was decreased from -0.0001 to -0.009 (15<sup>th</sup> to 21<sup>st</sup> day). The net weight gain is 0.6 g and total growth rate g/day is 0.006. In case of <em>Nitzschia scalpelliformis</em> results showed higher biomass weight (1.48 g) on 15<sup>th</sup> day. It was decreased (1.07 to 0.50) from 18<sup>th</sup> to 21<sup>st</sup> day. The growth rate decreased from 15<sup>th</sup> to 21<sup>st</sup> day (0.0005 to -0.001). Net weight gain of algal biomass is 1.105g and total growth rate (g/day) is 0.0006.</p> MIDHAT MAHBOOB GHAZALA YASMEEN BUTT AMINA FAREED UMAL BASHIR TOOBA ZIA ANEEZA ATTIQUE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-17 2022-09-17 15 29 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i35-367857 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Fusarium moniliforme ISOLATED FROM INFECTED MAIZE PLANTS FROM FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN <p>Maize (<em>Zea mays </em>L) is a parsimoniously important cereal crop after wheat and rice because it is rich in carbohydrates, protein, fiber, sugar, and ash, and oil that’s used as human food and the crop is used as animal feed too. The stalk rot of maize caused by <em>Fusarium moniliforme</em> (<em>Fm</em>) is one of the most important emerging threats to the successful production of maize in Pakistan. In this study the physicochemical characterization of <em>Fm</em> was done. Diseased samples of maize were collected from Faisalabad regions. Pathogen was isolated from the infected maize plant. In physiological test different pH levels (8.5, 7.5, 6.5 and 4) were evaluated and the highest fungal growth was observed at pH 7.5 (14.50mm), and the effect of different temperature (23, 28, 33, and 38) were also assessed. At 28°C temperature (38.42mm) the highest growth was observed. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, dextrose, and maltose) versus were assessed. Glucose as a carbon source showed the highest fungal growth (11.62mm). Nitrogen sources such as urea, Ammonium nitrate (NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>), and potassium nitrate (KNO<sub>3</sub>) were assessed, and urea showed the highest fungal growth (34.86mm). <em>Fm</em> was characterized by using biochemical tests such as cellulose hydrolysis, urease activity, β-glucosidase activity, phosphate, and polyphenol oxidases activity. All these biochemical showed the positive results except urease activity test. All the experiments were conducted under lab conditions by using Randomized Complete Block Design (CRBD). To observe the difference in response of treatments, least significant difference (LSD) was used at 0.05 % probability level.</p> MUHAMMAD KASHIF MUHAMMAD ATIQ NASIR AHMED RAJPUT SHAHBAZ TALIB SAHI FAHAD YAQOOB MARIAM ASHRAF TAHREEM FATIMA AQSA GHAFFAR TAHREEM AIMEN HAMZA TARIQ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-07 2022-09-07 71 84 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347843 SUPERIORITY OF NANO-SILVER NITRATE AND NANO-CHITOSAN IN CONTROLLING BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION AND PROMOTING GROWTH OF In vitro DATE PALM CULTURES <p><strong>Date palm (<em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>L.) a perennial monocotyledonous tree it’s have an ecological importance and economical role in several countries of Middle East and North Africa, date palm can’t be propagate by seeds, meanwhile the offshoots produced low numbers of offshoots for the given period, so tissue culture technique become a great important for produced the huge demand plantlets, the in vitro technique facing a problem as the contamination by bacterial and fungus that lead to loss the cultures, for eliminate this problem many treatments were used as chitosan 5 and 15 ml/l, AgNO<sub>3</sub> 4.0 and 7.0 ml/l, Zn 4.0 and 7.0 mg/l and cu 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l. as the main forms or as a nanoparticles NPs in addition to streptomycin 40 and 50 mg/l and AgNO<sub>3</sub> + Sodium thiosulfate 0.5 and 1.0 ml/l were added to rooting stage medium for 3 subcultures for each, then these plantlets were acclimatized under greenhouse condition. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared following t-test using LSD values at 5%. The percentage of cultures contamination was to be found zero % with the treatments chitosan, silver nitrate AgNO<sub>3</sub>, in addition to the combination of Chitosan + AgNO<sub>3</sub>, chitosan + Zn and finally chitosan + Cu at all tested levels produced, while the treatments Zn and Cu at two tested levels produced 11% contamination, the observation of the vegetative growth and leaves contents of indoles and amino acids mg/g f.w. were found highest values under chitosan and AgNO<sub>3</sub> and the combination in between as the main forms or as NPs treatments, as well as, the acclimatization stage presented the great survival percentage % under Chitosan and AgNO<sub>3</sub> and combination in between as the main form or as NPs. The present study have been suggest that NPs chitosan, AgNO<sub>3</sub> and the combination in between might be a promising method for reduced or eliminate the in vitro microbes,&nbsp; reduced the harmful effects on the valuable date palm plantlets and increasing growth parameters.</strong></p> LAMIAA ABOGARRA NAWAL EISA GEHAD EL-HABBAA RASMIA S. S. DARWESH MOHAMED EL-HABBAK ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-07 2022-09-07 85 104 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347845 DETECTION OF FUNCTIONALLY IMPORTANT RESIDUES ON SUCROSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE THROUGH IN SILICO SEQUENCE-STRUCTURE ANALYSIS <p>Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an important enzyme in the two-step biosynthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic organisms. SPS catalyzes the formation of Sucrose-6-phosphate which is subsequently converted to sucrose. SPS is believed to have regulatory roles in sucrose biosynthesis through interaction with Serine Kinase, 14-3-3 protein and SPP. Nevertheless, the protein-protein interaction sites on SPS are not well characterized. This study focuses on identification of functionally important residues other than the catalytic residues in SPS through evolutionary trace analysis and structural mapping of key residues. We found that other than catalytic sites, many residues are absolutely conserved and are either buried or exposed. The exposed highly conserved sites are putative protein-protein interaction sites. We have also identified residues which are class specifically conserved in SPS4. Mapping of the class specific residues on SPS crystal structure revealed their distribution close to the catalytic site. Therefore, the class specific conserved sites in SPS4 can be predicted to be influencing catalysis.</p> D. P. SYAMALADEVI AMALA DANDU J. ROSHAN S. M. BALACHANDRAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-05 2022-09-05 58 70 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347840 TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF FRESH WATER ALGAE FROM CHISHTIAN CITY, DISTRICT BHAWALNAGAR <p>Chishtian city was being explored for the collection of fresh water algae in the present study and for those purpose 12 samples of fresh algae from different areas was being collected. From those samples total 28 species was being collected that belong to 16 genera, 11 families, 7 orders and total 4 phylum including, Cyanophycota, Volvocophycota, Bacillariophycota and Chlorophycota. Those samples were being collected from September 2019 to December 2019. After they were classified and identified taxonomically upto species level by using Shameel classification [25,26]. Those 28 species that are being obtained in the total research work: Kingdom Monera has been acknowledged with phylum one; Cyanophycota that omits two classes, two orders, two families four genera and eight species that were following; <em>Chroococus turgidus, Merismopedia punctate, Oscillatoria rubescens, O. priencp, O. tenuis, O. ornate, Spirulina gigantea </em>and<em> Arthospira platensis. </em>Kingdom Protista has been identified with two phylum; Volvocophycota and Bacillariophycota with three classes, four orders, eight families, 11 genera and 18 species which were following; <em>Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Scenedesmus armatus, S. dimorphus, S. bijuga, Cosmerium botrytis, C. microsphinctum, C. pseudopyramiolatum, Closterium turgidum, Fragilaria ulna, F. crotonensis, Ghomphonemia ghosea, Navicula exigua, Nitzschia acicularis, Gyrosigma acuminatum, G. scalproides, Cymbella ventricosa, Cyclotella operculata, C. meneghiniana.</em> Kingdom protoctista have one phylum; Chlorophycota that have 1 class, one order, one family and two species that are following, <em>Spirogyra pratensis and S. acquinoctialis.</em></p> MASHAL JAVED AMINA FAREED SYEDA RIDA ZAHRA UMAL BASHIR AFSHAN NAEEM ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 42 57 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347830 BIOCORROSION AND ANTIFUNGALS AGAINST Penicillium cyclopium: A BIBLIOMETRIC ASSESSMENT <p>Corrosion of all forms can cause many economic losses. One type of corrosion, biocorrosion, is due to the action of microorganisms including fungi and more research concerning this cause of corrosion is needed. The aim of this manuscript is divided into two parts. Firstly, we use a Scopus bibliometric analysis of publications to develop a general overview of corrosion and biocorrosion research trends from 1900 to 2021. Secondly, using a deep analysis of all the Scopus recorded publications, we determine the different antifungal agents effective against <em>Penicillium cyclopium</em>, used here as an example of fungi involved in biocorrosion. The general overview demonstrates a clear progression and increase of number of publications in the two fields of corrosion and biocorrosion. However, from a total of 304,863 publications related to corrosion, only 1.5% are related to biocorrosion. The most studied metal is "steel" followed by "alloy'' and "aluminum". For microorganisms, the most studied are Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) followed by Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria (SOB) and Iron Bacteria (IB). In relation to antifungal agents for the fungus <em>Penicillium cyclopium</em>, we found sixteen antifungal agents described in the literature. We hope this study may give scientists insights to further examine the potential for antifungal applications in the reduction and remediation of biocorrosion.</p> BENAMEUR NEHAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 30 41 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347823 ENCAPSULATION OF BANANA SHOOT TIPS FOR In vitro SHORT-TERM STORAGE AND GERMPLASM CONSERVATION <p>The present investigation is focused on the effect of different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride treatment on banana shoot tip (G-9) encapsulation for the formation of artificial seeds. For this, different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride were checked for optimum encapsulation. <em>In vitro</em> culture shoot tips of bananas were encapsulated by using different concentrations of sodium alginate i.e. (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) and calcium chloride (50 mM, 75mM, 100 mM and 150 mM). Further, the storage viability of encapsulated shoot tips was also examined. Encapsulated shoot tips were stored at two different temperatures i.e., 4℃ and 25℃. Results indicated that the best alginate concentration for encapsulation was found at 3% (w/v) and 100 mM calcium chloride. The beads were formed globular, firm and found suitable for handling and exhibited a germination frequency of 93.33% on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (5.0 + 1.0 mg/l, respectively). The encapsulated shoot tips showed different responses after storage at different temperatures. The multiplication frequency declined for both tested storage temperatures i.e., 4℃ and 25℃. Encapsulated shoot tips stored at 4℃ showed survival for longer storage with a regeneration frequency of 91.33%, whereas, capsules stored at 25℃ resulted in rapid deterioration within 90 days and exhibited a maximum multiplication frequency as 61.66%. This indicates that storage at low temperatures is more effective. This study could be applied as an alternative method of banana micropropagation as well as germplasm conservation.</p> NITIKA VATS ANKIT AGRAWAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 12 20 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347813 EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND VARIETY ON MILLING, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND COOKING PROPERTIES OF PROMINENT RICE VARIETIES GROWN IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN <p>The aim of this study was to check the cooking quality of Basmati varieties grown at different locations in Punjab, Pakistan. This experiment was conducted in a factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors considered were variety (Super Basmati, PK 1121 aromatic and Basmati 515), and geographical region (Kala shah kaku (KSK), Faisalabad, Bahawalnagar, Farooqabad and Sargodha). Collected cleaned Paddy samples were converted to white rice and analyzed for milling, chemical and cooking properties. Data revealed significant impacts of variety and location on rice quality traits. The variety Super basmati was the most consistent in terms of grain length, amylose, alkali-spreading value and elongation ratio (E/R) among all studied locations. The mean grain length of studied varieties ranged from 7.18 to 8.50 mm. The alkali spreading value ranged from 4.00 to 7.0. Basmati-515 grown at Farooqabad had significantly more grain elongation (2.08) compared to others. The protein content was intermediate in all the studied varieties grown at all regions (6.80 to 7.50 %). The maximum values for average grain length (AGL) (8.50), cooked grain length (CGL) (17.45) and E/R (2.08) were found in PK 1121 Aromatic at KSK and Farooqabad respectively. This study can help the researchers to decide suitable area for specific rice varieties.</p> FARAH SHAMIM SAMINA SARFRAZ MOHSIN ALI RAZA SYED SULTAN ALI MUHAMMAD KASHIF HUSNAIN RASHEED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-24 2022-08-24 21 29 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347816 EFFECTS OF MICRONUTRIENTS (BORON AND ZINC) AS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF Camelina sativa L. <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Zinc (Zn) and Boron (B) on agro-morphological and seed quality attributes of <em>Camelina sativa.</em> The experiment consisted of 3 levels (2%, 4% and 6%) of each mentioned nutrients along with control (no application of micronutrients). Means were calculated and subjected to analysis of variance and LSD analysis, at 5 % level of significance. Following parameters <em>viz</em>., plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, thousand seed weight (g), grain yield (kg/ha), harvest index (%), dry matter accumulation (g/m<sup>2</sup>), crop growth rate (g/m<sup>2</sup>/day), biological yield (kg/ha), and oil yield (kg/ha) were evaluated. All subjected treatments were tested for every tested parameter, and results revealed significant values comparative to control. It was observed that foliar application of both boron and zinc micronutrients yielded maximum in all parameters in comparison with control which seems promising to improve crop development, oil yield and harvest index of <em>Camelina sativa</em> L.</p> EHSAN UL HAQ . FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN MUJAHID IQBAL MAQBOOL AHMED SALMAN GHUFFAR JAHANGIR AHMED RAFIQUE AHMED MUHAMMAD SHAHBAZ ATTIQ UR REHMAN ABDUL MANNAN HAMZAH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 1 11 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i33-347809 ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF Alternaria solani CAUSING EARLY BLIGHT IN TOMATO THROUGH DIFFERENT BACTERIAL STRAINS <p>Tomato is grown widely in almost 140 countries having annual production of 151 million tons and is mostly grown in South America. Pure culture of <em>Alternaria solani</em> isolated from twig and leaf samples was prepared. The fungal colonies were cultured in Broth of MEA and PDA for 5-7 days at 25<sup>o</sup>C. Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium-bromide (CTAB) extraction technique was applied for DNA extraction of <em>A. solani </em>with little modification. Molecular identification with ITS primers of isolated fungi was undertaken and a 594bp size of the band was obtained. The DNA sequence was submitted to Gen Bank having Gene Bank no. MN200940. The sequenced data was 100% similar to the <em>Alternaria</em> isolate Alt-C81 of Gen Bank accession code MN044802. Biological control agents were applied and data were collected at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 10 days. The maximum inhibition percentage after 3 days (84.23%) was recorded by <em>Azospirillum lipoferum</em> (RB-38) while the lowest inhibition (44.84%) was recorded by <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (RB-59). After 7 days of incubation, the highest inhibition (89.13%) was observed by using <em>A. lipoferum</em> (RB-38) and the lowest (60.57%) by <em>Bacillus spp</em>. (RB-43), respectively. After 10 days of incubation, the highest inhibition percentage (95.91%) was recorded by <em>B. subtilis</em> (RB-59) and the lowest by <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> (RB-16) with PI of 13.71% respectively. These results suggest that the bacterial isolates studied have a good potential to be used as biocontrol agents of <em>A. solani</em> in tomato plants for the sustainable production of tomatoes without using fungicides. It not gives a good perspective for sustainability and also reduce the environmental pollution.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MUHAMMAD NASIR SUBHANI FARHAN ALI SHAISTA NASIR AHMAD ALI SHAHID ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-17 2022-08-17 78 88 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327806 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCES OF WHEAT LINES UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION REGIMES <p>An equitable water supply is pre-requisite under limited water availability. The varying irrigations have diverse impact on growth behavior of wheat crop (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) under site specific environments. A research was conducted in the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan in the student sector to compare the output of the wheat lines under various irrigation regimes in 2018-2019. Five wheat lines (V<sub>1</sub>=9496, V<sub>2</sub>=ZA-10, V<sub>3</sub>=Galaxy-2013, V<sub>4</sub>=ZA-6, V<sub>5</sub>=9493), were tested against various irrigations (2, 3 and 4 irrigations) in their growth period. Treatments were organized in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in factorial arrangement. Data was analyzed using LSD test with 5% probability. Analysis of genotypes under different irrigations revealed that, the wheat line ZA-6 has better growth performance and highest yield than others under three irrigations. Moreover, this line showed highest economic benefits (Rs. 63892) than all other genotypes when supplied with three irrigations. In conclusion ZA-6 was the potential line of wheat under Faisalabad conditions and can be recommended to farmers for cultivation with three irrigations.</p> MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH SALEEM ABID SHEHZAD ABDUL AHAD MUHAMMAD IDREES MUHAMMAD SAJJAD NAEEM IQBAL WAQAR AKRAM ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 67 77 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327796 HEPATO-PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE REHABILITATIVE POTENTIALS OF JAMBUL (Syzygium cumini) PLANT EXTRACT IN LEAD INTOXICATED MICE <p><strong>The ameliorative prospective of Jambul (<em>Syzygium cumini</em>) fruit pulp extract was studied against Pb-based hepato-histological and micrometric changes in albino laboratory mice (<em>Mus musculus</em>). There were 3 experimental groups: (i) Control group (untreated) (ii) Pb group (15 days 50ppm Pb ions from Lead acetate in drinking water (iii) Pb+Jm group (Pb ions treatment as in Pb group followed by 0.2ml/per day jambul fruit pulp extract through gavage and plain water for the next 5 days). Animals were euthanized on the 21st day to recover liver for histopathological and micrometric studies.</strong></p> <p><strong>The misalignment of the hepatic cord with narrowed and chocked sinusoidal spaces and some lesions in hepatic tissue were seen as persistent histopathological signs of lead exposure. Micrometric observations indicate that the mean cross-sectional area of the hepatocytes in the Pb group (483.5µ2) increased significantly than the control group (420.1µ2), similarly, the mean cross-sectional area of the hepatocytes nuclei in the Pb group was also significantly higher (76.69µ2) than the control (62.37µ2). These pathological and micrometric signs were convincingly reversed in Pb+Jm, additionally, hepatoblasts progenitor cells were frequently observed, indicating the rehabilitative and regenerative potential of jambul fruit pulp extract. Results indicate that jambul fruit pulp extract possesses precious hepato-protective and regenerative potentials against lead exposure-related hepato-histopathology. The findings of the present study indicate the nutraceutical role of jambul fruit pulp extract for potential human consumption.</strong></p> IRAM INAYAT KHAWAJA RAEES AHMAD ATTIA BATOOL KAUSAR RAEES MUHAMMAD ALI KANWAL SYEDA NADIA AHMAD RABIYAH ALI ASMA YOUNIS MEHWISH NASIR UROOJ KANWAL SAIMA MATLOOB NAILA KANWAL MUHAMMAD ATIF KAMRAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-05 2022-08-05 56 66 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327793 MORPHOCULTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF AFLATOXINS PRODUCING Aspergillus flavus ASSOCIATED WITH Arachis hypogaea IN PUNJAB, PAKSITAN <p>Aflatoxins, produced by ubiquitous <em>Aspergillus</em> section <em>Flavi</em> species, are polyketide pathway-derived secondary metabolites and, due to their highly carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic nature, pose human severe health issues globally. In this study, raw groundnut kernels were collected from groundnut growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan, at pre and post-harvest stages. Groundnut-associated <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> isolates were morphologically identified, and their respective aflatoxins producing potential was determined through cultural methods; UV illumination and ammonia vapor exposure. Three hundred isolates were cultured on differential media, Malt extract agar, and Sabouraud dextrose agar, for studying typical morphocultural characteristics, and detailed microscopy. Observed phenotypic variability assorted isolates into twenty groups. Representative isolate of each group was grown on coconut agar medium and exposed to UV illumination and ammonia vapors to observe possible fluorescence excitation and reverse colony color change, respectively. Results of both cultural methods conformed to each other; 35% of isolates produced fluorescent ring upon UV exposure and pinkish reverse colony color upon ammonia vapors exposure (toxigenic), 50% isolates showed no change (atoxigenic), and 15 % showed unclear results. This study provides evidence that groundnut kernels are highly exposed to toxigenic <em>A. flavus</em> strains both at pre and post-harvest stages.</p> MUHAMMAD KALEEM SARWAR IMRAN UL HAQ SIDDRA IJAZ NAZIR JAVED NADEEM AKBAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 28 41 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327789 BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN LEAVES OF RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE URDBEAN GENOTYPES INFECTED WITH URDBEAN LEAF CRINKLE VIRUS (ULCV) <p>Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a widespread and most destructive virus that causes leaf crinkle disease in black gram. Virus infection causes alteration in physiological and biochemical processes within the plant. In present study, effect of viral infection was investigated on chlorophyll content, total soluble sugar, total protein, phenolic contents, sodium dismutase (SOD) and nitrate reductase activities in the leaves of susceptible and resistant genotypes of urdbean at 30 days after virus inoculation. Disease symptoms were mild (6.7% to 10%) in resistant genotypes and severe (36% to 43%) in susceptible genotypes. ULCV infection resulted in a significant decrease in chlorophyll content in infected plants of all genotypes over control plants; however, magnitude of reduction was more in susceptible genotypes (41%) as compared to the resistant genotypes (14.35%). The total sugar and protein contents were significantly higher in the inoculated susceptible (210.26 % and 68.67%, respectively) as compared to the resistant genotypes (183.87% and 25.89%, respectively). Also, the total phenolic content was significantly higher in inoculated resistant genotypes (83.91%) over the susceptible genotypes (25.89%). There was significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme in resistant genotypes as compared to susceptible inoculated genotypes. Similarly, a reduction in nitrate reductase activity was more in inoculated plants of resistant genotypes. Our results indicate that post-infection significant increases in total sugars and proteins in susceptible genotypes and phenols in resistant genotypes may have a role in disease resistance and development. Changes in enzymatic activities in resistant and susceptible genotypes might also have some role in resistance against ULCV.</p> SHALINI DEVI ANJU PATHANIA REENU KUMARI LAKHMIR SINGH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 42 55 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327791 SOIL MACRO-NUTRIENTS APPRAISAL AND INDEXING FOR SALINITY / SODICITY AND FERTILITY STATUS OF SOILS IN TEHSIL ATHARA-HAZARI OF DISTRICT JHANG, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN: A PRECISION AGRICULTURAL APPROACH <p>The soil sustains plant life and supplies nourishment for growth, and its productivity and salt stress are important factors in agricultural yield. In this regard, from 2016-17 to 2020-21, this study was done to determine the soils of Tehsil Athara-Hazari Jhang for their salinity-sodicity condition, at the union council (UC) level. A total of 1654 soil samples were obtained from Tehsil Athara-Hazari's ten union councils. The obtained samples were evaluated for various physic-chemical characteristics following standard methods. According to the findings, 45.7 % (756 samples) of Tehsil Athara-Hazari's soils were non-salty, 50.3 % (831 samples) were saline-sodic to sodic, and only 4.0 % (67 samples) were saline. The most troublesome soils were identified in UC Dosa, whereas the least damaging soils were discovered in UC Munde Syed. In terms of the fertility state of Tehsil Athara-Hazari soils, 64.0 % (1059 samples) had low organic matter (OM) content, 32.5 % (538 samples) had medium OM content, and only 3.5 % (57 samples) had appropriate OM level. The majority of soils (68.7%) were found to be inadequate in available phosphorus (P), with only 31.3 % in the medium range. The extractable potassium (K) 76.1% (1259 samples) was found in medium range, 13.7% (227 samples) in adequate range and only 10.2% (168 samples) were in deficient range. Soil textural analysis indicate that most of Athara-Hazari soils 76.4% (1263 samples) soils were loam, followed by 12.8 % (212 samples) clay type and the least 10.8 % (179 samples) were labeled as sandy loam. When examined at the union council UC level, UC Mari Shah Sagira had the highest OM deficient soils (75.0 %), whereas UC Kot Shakir had OM appropriate soils (9.0 %). Similarly, the highest percentages of UC Rasheed pur soils about 74.5% were deficient in accessible phosphorus P, while the lowest percentage was in UC Dosa. The maximum soils (85.5%) of Kot Murad were in fall in medium ranged extractable K while minimum 44.4 % in UC Munde Syed, large proportion of Munde Syed has adequate K. The majority of the soils in UC Kot Murad were loam, whereas the percentage of loamy sand at UC Munde Syed was the lowest. The most light-textured soils were found in UC Uch Gul Imam, whereas clayey soils were found in UC Munde Syed. Appropriate measures should be adopted on war-foot basis to overcome the low fertility and hazardous effects of salinity/sodicity concerns, as to increase the crop productivity in current food security threats.</p> MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH AZHAR MAHMOOD MUHAMMAD TAHIR SHAH UJALA QAMAR MUHAMMAD TAUSEEF ABDULLAH MUHAMMAD MAZHAR IQBAL TAYYABA NAZ KHALID MAHMOOD KHURRAM SHEHZAD BAIG BELQEES AKHTAR MUTI ULLAH MUHAMMAD IDREES NAEEM IQBAL WASEEM ABBAS NASEEM AKHTAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-03 2022-08-03 19 27 10.56557/pcbmb/2022/v23i31-327788