Understanding the nutrient contents (Nitrogen/N, Phosphorous/P, and Potassium/K) in leaves of Acacia mangium trees is important for maximizing timber production and carbon sequestration of a plantation. This study aimed at investigating the nutrient contents in different leaf types (young, medium and old) collected from fertilization and non-fertilization treatments in two different ages of A. mangium trees grown in Northeast Vietnam. The leaf samples were collected in March 2018 (1-year old trees) and March 2019 (2-year old trees). The results indicated that leaf water content decreased with leaf ages but not with tree ages. While N, P, and K content were significantly different among three leaf types as highest in young leaves, reducing to medium and old leaves. N content ranged 1.72-1.77% in young leaves, 1.21-1.24% in medium leaves, and 0.89-0.91% in old leaves. P content ranged 0.81-0.97% in young leaves, 0.41-0.54% in medium leaves, and 0.16-0.23% in old leaves. While K content was 1.31-1.53% in young leaves, 0.76-1.00% in medium leaves, and 0.15-0.31% in old leaves. In each leaf type, the differences of N contents between fertilization and non-fertilization, and between tree ages were not significant. While the differences of P and K contents between fertilization and non-fertilization were significant, indicating higher values in fertilization treatment, but the difference was not significant between tree ages. The low P content may indicate a nutrient deficiency in this study site, therefore P fertilization is necessary to improve the production of A. mangium plantation.
Saffron is an important medicinal plant widely cultivated for nutrition and economic properties. The mutation can be used to increase the variation in this plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of gamma radiation on the in vitro cormogenesis and the corm size and then acclimatization of the corms. Three ecotypes of the saffron corms were collected from Mashhad, Torbat-e Heidarieh and Sarayan provinces in Iran. Gamma radiation with the intensities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 Gray were used for corm treatment. Then, for In vitro propagation, the SH medium containing 3 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was applied. The highest survival rate was observed in the 2.5 Gray treatment of apical buds, in Torbat-e Heydarieh ecotype with 90% survival. After two months, the bud number on each explant was determined. The highest bud number was observed in 2.5 Gray dose in the Sarayan ecotype with 11.03 buds per explant. The buds were transferred to a room with the temperature of 15°C and a photoperiod of 10/14 hrs (light/dark). The Rooting was done on a SH medium containing 2 mg/L BAP with 9% sucrose. The best treatment for cormogenesis induction was 1 mg/L IBA in ½ SH medium. Then, the MS medium with 6% sucrose was used to increase the size of corms in the dark condition at 25°C which led to a mean diameter increase of 1.22 cm. Finally, the corms were transferred to cocopit-perlite pots to check the survival rate. The acclimatization percentage was 91.66%. This study showed that the lower dose of Gamma ray can increase the number of sprouts and thereby the number of corm production.
Genetic diversity and relatedness in crop germplasm is important to design strategies to improve traits and evaluate new varieties in okra by using the appropriate breeding technique. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is an important multi-purpose vegetable crop cultivated and consumed across all tropical and temperate regions of the world. Two cultivars, Egyptian and Japanese, having a broad genetic background and phenotypic diversity were chosen as parents and were crossbred in both directions to assess intra-specific hybridization between these two cultivars. A significant variation between parents and corresponding hybrids was found in morphological characters including qualitative and quantitative characters such as main stem height, internode length, leaf area, petiole color, fruit color and fruit pubescence. The F1 hybrid plants were intermediate showing the dominant characters. They were tall with average height (80.3 cm), having red color petiole and fruit. The anthocyanin contents were higher in Egyptian mothers (103 mg/g FW) followed by Egyptian cultivar × Japanese cultivar (62.84 mg/g DW) and Japanese cultivar × Egyptian cultivar (46.07 mg/g DW). Petal blotch is on both sides similar to Japanese mother, while in Egyptian mothers petal blotch positioned inside only. Physiological attributes and metabolite contents were also assessed including total chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, carbohydrates, protein and saponins. The results indicated that the two intra specific hybrids consist of genetic material from both Egyptian and Japanese cultivars. The F1 hybrid characteristics were better and possessed desirable characters confirming that crossbreeding could be a useful tool for okra crop improvement.
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Sm. is well known as pinecone lily, bitter ginger and is wild ginger belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. The present study is aimed to develop an efficient protocol for micropropagation through the culture of rhizome bud explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin (Kn) and α- naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were employed towards the induction and effective multiplication of shoots. The highest percentage of shoot induction was observed on the medium supplemented with 8.88 µM/L of BAP and 1.10 µM/L of NAA. The maximum number of micro shoots (5.10 ± 0.31) was achieved on the medium fortified with 8.88 µM/L of BAP and 1.10 µM/L of NAA. The initiated shoots were subcultured on fresh medium enriched with the combination of BAP+NAA, Kn+NAA and BAP+Kn+NAA. Among the various combinations studied, the medium fortified with 8.88 µM/L of BAP, 9.30 µM/L of Kn and 1.10 µM/L of NAA was found to be the most suitable one towards the maximum percentage of shoot multiplication with the highest number of shoots (13.40 ± 0.47) and mean shoot length of 9.01 ± 0.17 cm. The multiple shoots produced roots spontaneously in the multiplication stage itself. The healthy shoot lets were hardened and transfer to the field with 100% of survival. The developed protocol is the most suitable one for the propagation of shoots and roots simultaneously. Hence this could be useful for the large scale production of plantlets of this important medicinal plant.
In this study, the pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani recovered from diseased strawberry plants was evaluated on three strawberry varieties. Isolates H1, G1, R1 and For de R. solani were significantly highly pathogenic by inducing symptoms on the roots and crowns of inoculated plants. The severity index was maximal (100%) in Fortuna plants inoculated with H1, those of R1 and For reached 75% while those of M1 and G1 were the lowest (50%). The indexes were greater than 50% on Festival variety in response to all isolates with the exception of R2 (25%). With regard to infection ratings, the Fortuna variety was more affected by H1, R1 and For, assigned with scores of the crown rot ranging from 3 to 4. In addition, reduced development of root system of Festival variety was also observed in reponse to H1 with a disease score of 0. All the growth parameters decreased after the inocultaion experiments of the three strawberry plant varieties by the seven tested isolates of R. solani in comparison with non inoculated control plants. The infectivity reaction of strawberry plants to isolates H1, G1 and For was extensive leading to plant death after 3 weeks of inoculation. The rosette diameter of variety Fortuna inoculated by H1 was reduced to 13 cm, 14 cm by R1 and 16. 3 cm by M1 compared to 32.8 cm for control. A significant reduction in size of root part was noted in Fortuna plants inoculated with different isolates. It attained respectively 9.3 cm and 12.3 cm for G1 and H1 against 48.3 cm for control plants. Moreover, the re-isolation percentage of R. solani from roots, crown and soil for the three varieties of strawberry plants were greater than 60%, 80% and 62.5% respectively.
Trichoderma is used as a bio-agent and have been reported to be quite effective, inexpensive and eco- friendly. It can be used as seed treatment, applied direct to the soil before planting and added to organic fertilizers. Trichoderma controls the pathogenic organism by competition, mycoparasitism and antagonism. It excretes enzymes like viridin and gleotoxin thereby enhancing the root growth. Hence, it has got significant importance in ecofriendly disease management programs. The first step while studying the bio-control, is the identification of a promising bio- control agent. Once the bio-control agent is identified and is proven effective against plant pathogens over several reproducible results, the method of mass production, formulation and application should be taken into consideration to stabilize the product during storage and to facilitate its delivery to the plant. The major hurdle in the use of bio-pesticides is their shelf life and inconsistent performance. Therefore, the present study “Shelf life studies of different formulations of Trichoderma harzianum” was undertaken at biological control lab, NIPHM Hyderabad with the objectives: Evaluation of solid and liquid substrates for mass production of T. harzianum and Shelf life studies of different formulations of T. harzianum. From the study it was found that all the prepared formulations retained optimum viability. Capsule and sachet based formulations gave higher shelf life of Trichoderma as compared to wettable formulations. Application of Capsule and sachet based formulations would be more convenient for application, storage and handling to control diseases in field and orchards which in turn would help the farmers to achieve a better crop yield.
In north-western Morocco, damping-off diseases symptoms are often observed on 3-4 weeks Tetraclinis articulata containerised seedlings in forest nurseries. A survey was done to this species in Sidi Amira forest nursery revealed a mortality rate ranging between 4 to 13%. Fusarium solani was isolated from diseased plants with the percentage of 68%. Pregerminated seeds were inoculated with inoculum solution for 3 hours and sown in 400 ml plastic containers filled with a (3:1,v,v) mixture of peat/vermiculite. After 4 weeks, pre-emergence, post-emergence, root rot, stem necrosis and foliage chlorosis were observed in all containers with inoculated seedlings while control sets remained asymptomatic. Koch’s postulate was verified by reisolating F. Solani from roots, hypocotyl and epicotyl of the inoculated seedlings. Pathogenicity test revealed that preemergence, post emergence mortality rate; disease index and growth parameters were significantly different comparing to control.
Codonopsis javanica is a medicinal plant, which has been widely used in China, India, Laos, Japan, and Vietnam. It can be used to treat diabetes and other diseases. The leaf oil compounds consist of mainly β-pinene and α-pinene. While C. javanica root extracts could attenuate fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and associated oxidative stress. Because of such importance, C. javanica has been overharvested in nature. Therefore, recently growing C. javanica has been receiving attention, which can contribute to poverty reduction to ethnic communities in mountainous areas of Vietnam. This work aimed at investigating the effects of fertilization on the survival and growth of C. javanica in Dien Bien province, northern Vietnam. There were three treatments of fertilization including (1) manure with 5 tones/ha named as F2, (2) NPK (5:10:3) with 500 kg/ha named as F3 and (3) compost with 1 tone/ha named as F4, and control/no fertilization named as F1. After planting 14 months F1 and F2 showed the best in survival rate and growths as 72.2% in F1 and 66.7% in F2 and 2.02 shoots/stump and 42.9 cm height in F1. While the difference of stump diameter, and leaf length and width was not different among treatments, which was 0.3 cm, 5.9-6.1 cm, and 4.0-4.1 cm, respectively. It is concluded that fertilization at planting is generally not required, while using natural shading as living trees is necessary for planting C. javanica.
Composite endomycorrhizal inocula originating from plots of saffron crops of different durations of exploitation (2, 4, 6 and 10 years) were used to inoculate substrates intended to receive saffron corms (bulbs). Four weeks after inoculation, the length of the aerial part (27 cm), the fresh weight of the aerial part (1.36 g), the fresh weight of the root part (0.82 g), the number of leaves (8.6) and the number of bulbs (3) in mycorrhizal saffron plants were higher than in non-mycorrhizal inoculated plants (18.6 cm, 0.25 g, 0.16 g, 3.6 and 1, respectively). A significant improvement in these parameters is noted in the plants grown from the bulbs grown on substrates inoculated with 2 inocula originating from the saffron cultures aged 4 and 6 years (7.25 and 8.6 cm, 1.35 and 1.32 g, 0.74 and 0.82 g; 2.2, respectively). These two inocula showed high activity in the rhizosphere of saffron plants, 16 endomycorrhizal species belonging to the genera Glomus, Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Gigaspora, Pacispora and Entrophospora, sporulated mycorrhizal plants in the rhizosphere with the inoculum of plots of 4 farms and 13 species belonging to the genera Glomus, Acaulospora, Pacispora and Scutellospora, sporulated rhizospheric soil with mycorrhizal plants with the inoculum from plots that were exploited for 6 years. The results of this study have shown that it is possible to improve the agronomic parameters of the plants and to stimulate the multiplication of the bulbs, base of the improvement of the saffron culture, by the contribution of inocula based of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
The possibility of using autogamous forms of alfalfa in the breeding of varieties with stable seed productivity in the conditions of insufficient number of insect-pollinators has been proved. Aim of present study was to evaluate the breeding value of alfalfa inbred lines with different degree of autogamy for creation of synthetic varieties. Inbred lines of the seventh- tenth generations were obtained with a high level of autogamy (41-76%) and seed yield at the level of the variety – standard. The splitting on the trait takes place among the descendants of the inbred generations on the both of the autogamous and self-incompatible plants. The invariable high-autogamous lines have been not obtained for 34 years of research. The autogamy levels above 40.1%, had 55% of lines in the tenth generation. Inbred lines have been created with forage yields at the standard-grade level and high seed yields. Synthetic varieties with seed yields of 0.300- 0.321 t/ha and different number of components (5-7) were formed on the basis of lines with high combining ability effects. Autogamous forms which were created do not lose the ability to cross pollination.
Tetraclinis articulata is an essence of great socio-economic value. The development of the resistance and survival potential of this species to sometimes extreme environmental conditions are a concern of the managers. for that, the present work is fixed as an objective to evaluate the rate of mycorrhization of thuya roots and to highlight the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of thuya from two sites (Beni Souhane and Aderj) of the region of Sefrou (Middle Eastern Atlas). The results obtained showed that the thuya roots carry different structures of endomycorrhizal fungi. The frequencies of mycorrhization of the roots are of the order of 93.3% at the level of site Aderj and 80% at Beni Souhane. The mycorrhizal root intensities are respectively 45.8% and 40% for the Beni Souhane and Aderj sites. Moreover, the arbuscule contents are 26.05% in Beni Souhane and 25.52% in Aderj. The vesicle contents are 14.89% in Aderj and 21.51% in Beni Souhane. The density of endomycorrhizal spores in the rhizosphere of Thuya is 98 and 26 spores / 100 g of soil, respectively in Beni Souhane and Aderj. The identification of isolated spores allowed to note the presence of 37 species belonging to 7 genera, 7 families and 3 orders. The genus Glomus is the most abundant, with a distribution percentage of 63.5%. The species richness is 29 taxa in the site of Beni Souhane and 18 species at the level of Aderj. Besides, the thuya of the Beni Souhane site shows a better rate of mycorrhization of roots and a mycorrhizal species richness greater than that of the Aderj site. This is reflected on the state of forest formation that is coming well to Beni Souhane. It would, therefore, be valuable to develop inocula from the endomycorrhizal fungi present in the Thuya rhizosphere and proceed to controlled mycorrhization in nurseries to obtain resistant and vigorous plants.
In this study, we isolated and analysed the sequence of ITS4-5 genetic region of thirty three lotus samples which were collected in Thua Thien Hue province. The attained ITS4-5 genetic region had a length of ranged from 729 to 744 bp, which had high similarity with species Nelumbo nucifera (accession number: FJ599761.1), query cover was at 98%. Eight parameters were used to measure the DNA polymorphism of thirty three homologous DNA sequences in this population. The results indicated that, the number of separate polymorphic sites (S), total number of mutant sites (Eta), number of haplotype (h), haplotype diversity (Hd), average number of nucleotide differences (k), nucleotide diversity (π), theta (per site) from Eta (Ø) were 5 (S), 5 (Eta), 2(h), 0,458(Hd), 2,292 (k), 0,314 x 10-3 (π) and 0,169 x10-3 (Ø), respectively (P < 0,05). Our analysis indicated that Rm of ITS4-5 genetic region in lotus populations did not appear (Rm = 0). Two methods (Tajima’s D test, Fu and Li’s D* and F* test) were used to execute neutrality test. The results showed that, the evolution of lotus population was balancing selection, sudden population contraction, in other words, rare alleles present at low frequency and there are very few individuals that show significant differences from other individuals in the population. Phylogenetic tree was built based on three methods, namely Neightbour -Joining, Maximum Likelihood và Maximum Parsimony (bootstrap = 1000) showed that, thirty three collected lotus samples closely linked and they were divided into two groups. Group I included 22 samples of pink lotus varieties and group II included 11 samples of white lotus varieties. Through this result, we found that the ability to distinguish between white and pink lotus varieties of N. nucifera was significant when using the ITS4-5 genetic region.
In Morocco, saffron is grown in the areas of Taliouine (provine of Taroudante) and Taznakht (province of Ouarzazate). Studies on fungi related to this crop are still very rare. Mycological studies on mycoflora associated with Saffron (Crocus sativus) from the main producing area, located in the Taliouine region was carried out between September (corms for cultivation) and December (soil and roots of saffron plants), 2018. The samples (corms and roots with symptoms) were cut up in fragments and disinfected with alcohol. Then, these fragments were cultured on Potato Sucrose Agar and incubated in the growth chamber for 7 days at 28°C. The pure cultures obtained were identified morphologically and microscopically. The fungal complex identified in the soils, corms and roots of saffron plants was almost identical, including Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, F. roseum, Fusarium sp., Aspergillusfumigatus, A. niger, Trichoderma sp., Rhizopus oryzae and Penicillium sp. Species of the genus Fusarium, considered as true pathogens of different crops, are the most represented, with isolation percentages ranging from 6 to 20%. Trichoderma sp., a biocontrol agent against various pathogens, has also been isolated from the soils, corms and roots of saffron plants, with a percentage of isolation ranging from 8 to 13%. This is the first time that the species of the genus Fusarium(F. solani, F. culmorum and F. roseum) and Trichoderma have been isolated in Morocco from Crocus sativus.
Downy mildew disease of quinoa caused by Peronospora variabilis is a serious threat which greatly reduces yield. The identification of the source of the primary infection at the early growth stages of quinoa is necessary to manage the spread of this pathogen. Hence, a conventional detection method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the DNA of P. variabilis in the tissues of the different organs of quinoa plants (radicle or root; cotyledon or leaf; hypocotyl or stem) at the different growth stages (5-, 10-, 15- and 21-days old plants) and in inflorescences (flowers and their axes) at 60 and 80 days old. Twelve composite quinoa seedling samples were subdivided into different organs at the different growth stages. P. variabilis was detected in cotyledon/leaf tissues (10/12; 83%), hypocotyl/stem tissues (41.6%; 5/12) and radicle/root was the least positive (1/12; 0.8%) for presence of the pathogen. Moreover, the PCR showed that the pathogen was detected in the flowers and in their axes at the ages of 60 and 80 days. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) regions were examined. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that P. variabilis (EGDM1) was the causal agent of downy mildew affecting quinoa in Egypt and genetically similar to the United States and China lineage (COX2 Maximum likelihood tree). Downy mildew pathogen was detected in different organs of quinoa plant at early growth stages and inflorescences. Hence, the pathogen can spread systemically in quinoa tissues.
The first double haploid lines were obtained in the anther culture more than 50 years ago, but so far their production remains more art than a well-established technology. There are a huge number of articles with conflicting information, both on preliminary processing of anthers and medias that determine the highest yield of regenerants, despite the fact that the relevance of research in this area is difficult to overestimate. Double haploid (DH) lines are used: For increasing efficiency of traditional breeding; obtaining populations of DH lines used in several stages of fixing heterosis effect (to remove semi-lethal genes, as well as homozygotization of material) and so on. The objective of the study is to investigate the efficiency of media for producing DH lines in anther culture of hybrids between Russian and foreign varieties. The anthers of 67 hybrid combinations, both interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, were used. 30-50 anthers were planted on Petri dish (6 сm). After formation of callus (size varied from 2 to 10 mm) on the medium for dedifferentiation, they were transferred to MS medium for regeneration. Plants from 5 cm in size were transferred to the root formation medium. We study the effectiveness of nutrient media, which are derivatives of N6, but with a different hormonal composition; and С, RZ media, the salt content was also changed. Medias RZ and C did not reliably differ in callus yield; the rest were reliably inferior to them in this trait. Therefore, to increase the yield of callus, a higher content of salts of KNO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4 • 7H2O, MnSO4 • 4H2O, ZnSO4 • 7H2O, H3BO3, CaCl2 • 2H2O vitamins is necessary. However, their hormonal composition is different. If the RZ medium contains naphthylacetic (NAA) and dichlorophenoxyacetic acids ( 2,4-D), then C is only 2,4-D. N6-based media, N6a and N6б contain only one auxin as well as C. In the study, the best results were shown by option with content of both hormones at a concentration 2 mg / l NAA and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The results showed a significant positive effect of increasing iron (FeSO4 x 7 H2O) concentration (55.6 mg / L) both on callusogenesis and plant regeneration. In standard recipe of all the media used in the work, its concentration is 27.8 mg / l. To stimulate somatic embryogenesis, the media were modified also by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA) and silver nitrate AgNO3. Studies have shown that somatic embryogenesis is stimulated in many genotypes when using ABA in combination with cytokinins. Callusogenesis and regeneration in the considered combinations had maximum values at AgNO3 concentration 2 mg/l and; 1 mg/l ABA for the of most of the studied hybrids.
Adsorption is the adherence to a surface of atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid. This method produces an adsorbent film on the adsorbent's ground. In the present study, Ulva intestinalis (formerly Enteromorpha intestinalis) a member of Cyanophyceae collected form Covelong, Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu was used for adsorbing methyl orange and phenol red. The results showed that at 60 min of treating the phenol red dye with seaweed yield maximum reduction (44%) of colour and in case of methyl orange 47.4% colour reduction occurred after 60 min.
The plant Avicennia marina is broadly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Therapeutic plants have been studied for phytochemical analysis since most of the biological activities are due to the presence of phytoconstituents. This paper deals with the phytochemical determination of Avicennia marina plant using various solvent extracts such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol based on the polarity. Various tests were performed for analysis. The results revealed that all the extracts of the plant had a wide range of phytochemicals such as phenol, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, steroid, terpenoids.
The medicinal properties of holy basil have made us to further concentrate on its properties. The methanol and ethanol extracts of the plant Ocimum tenuiflorum was taken using Soxhlet extraction method. The phytochemical profile of both the extracts was observed for certain compounds. The extract was taken in different concentrations and was tested against three bacterial species (Bacillus Subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and three fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans). The estimation of secondary metabolite, Alkaloid estimation was done and was observed using thin layer chromatograph.
It is very essential for plant breeders to determine genetic variation for the growth of elevated yield choice. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of 3 tamarind samples, random exploitation of enhanced polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Tamarind plants were sampled in 3 environmental zones covering domestically known fruit morphotypes. On 3000 fruits and flowers, 12 morphological descriptors were evaluated. Univariate and canonical analyses carried out on morphological descriptors revealed essential similarities and verified the difference between morphotypes as viewed by indigenous people. However, the assessment of variance components showed significant differences within morphotypes, indicating a great heterogeneity within seeds historically categorized as belonging to an equal morphotype. Quantitative descriptors should, therefore, be coupled with domestically perceived qualitative characteristics (pulp style and color) in order to cause a bunch of strong morphological discrimination. The differences discovered were significantly linked to ecological factors. The size and mass of fruits and seeds are cared for with increased wetness and decreased with aridity. Results also stated that fruit mass could be an intelligent pulp output expression, although its predictive strength varied among morphotypes. Outputs from the variance component assessment recommended that if any genetic tests were not finished, germplasm assortment should be performed by testing a mild variety of forests per morphotype to ensure that a big variety of genetic diversity is captured. 10 Random modified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to evaluate tamarind trees ' genetic variety. At the molecular stage, genotypes that were strongly linked morphologically were discovered to be unrelated. A significant amount of intra-population variation reported in the donation research that could be used in interbreeding programs to introgress the intriguing characteristic of concern with effectiveness.
Medicinal plants are very rich in valuable metabolites. These metabolites will act as drug. Tulasi ssbelongs to one of the medicinal plant. It has both primary and secondary metabolites. A long back they are using for different purposes. It will act as anti microbial, antifungal and anti viral agents for many diseases. The most important thing is it has eugenol which will act as pain killer. In our present study we used main three parts of tulasi based to identify the different metabolites.
The seeds of Terminalia sp. were evaluated for their nutritional characters to utilize them for humans. Immediate examinations indicated that the seed contained 3.95% dampness, 24.78% unrefined protein, 5.36% debris, 3.94% rough fiber, 53.75% fats, 17.05% sugar and 549.65 Kcal Calorific esteem. The seeds were seen as great wellsprings of minerals. Potassium (9285 ± 0.22 mg) was the uppermost, followed in plunging request by Ca (837.20±1.28 mg), Mg (788.68 ± 0.21 mg) and Na (24.69± 0.32 mg). The oil was observed to be high in un immersed greasy acids, particularly oleic and linoleic.
The leaves of Azadirachta Indica were extracted with water and ethanol using soxhlet extraction. The various concentrations of the extract were tested for the presence of phytochemicals and also anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus and Micrococcus roseus. The results showed the occurrence of wide group of phytochemicals such as Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and steroids. The ethanol extract showed significant inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms and the highest was found against Micrococcus roseus and Escherichia coli with 9 and 10.5 mm.
The point of this investigation is to build up the mitigating action of the methanolic extract of Gymnosporia parviflora leaves with its portions and to portray the conceivable Mechanism of activity of methanolic concentrate of Gymnosporia parviflora. The mitigating exercises of methanolic concentrate of Gymnosporia parviflora was assessed in a carrageenan instigated model of intense aggravation, and the paw edema volume was estimated. Methanolic concentrate of Gymnosporia parviflora (300 mg/kg, body wt, p.o) fundamentally decreased carrageenan prompted paw edema in rodents. The methanolic extract of Gymnosporia parviflora has a huge calming action.
The main focus of this paper is to isolate novel bacteria from environmental samples such as garbage waste, road side solid wastes, pond and river water samples. These samples were processed and collected in sterile containers so that it cannot be degraded. The samples were inoculated in a growth medium for the observation of wide variety of mftableicrobes in the sample. The isolated bacteria were identified for its nature of gram positive or negative and its motility. Then it is sequenced for its genome by isolating the DNA followed by phylogenetic analysis. The bacterial genome was sequenced with BigDye Terminator v3.1. Then the dendogram is done for the findings of Phylogenetic Tree. The results revealed that the isolated bacterium was Paenibacillus dendritiformis.
In current scenario, purification of water is a major issue facing by the entire globe and hence removal of dye from waste water has been focused extensively with an ecofriendly and cheap adsorbent. The main objective of this study to adsorb the hazardous dye Malachite Green (MG) from the aqueous solution using two plant-based waste such as corn cob and sapota seed powder by adsorption technique. This clean method was optimized using various important dye adsorption influencing factors like contact time, pH, and adsorbent dose. Both the adsorbents showed excellent ability to remove the dye (%) from aqueous medium. Among them, sapota seed exhibited better adsorption of 93.2% than corn cob of 88.1% after 30 min of incubation period using 3 g/L of adsorbent. The results found in this study depicted that theses agricultural waste will be an attractive and cost-effective candidate for removing the cationic dyes from the dye effluent.
The present study measures the three antioxidant assays, namely, ABTS, DPPH and FRAP by standard protocols for one ayurvedic medicine, which is used to treat diseases like to treat weak digestion, vomiting, diarrhoea, indigestion, dysentery, irritable bowel syndrome etc. The IC50 value for ABTS radical scavenging effect of Kutajarishtam was found to < 0.156 µg/ml and the standard drug, Ascorbic acid was 208.87 µg/ml. The IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging assay of Kutajarishtam was found to be 1.968 µg/ml and the standard drug, Ascorbic acid was 8.158 µg/ml. The concentration of standard, ascorbic acid was taken as 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 µg/ml while concentration of sample, Kutajarishtam was taken as 0.156, 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 µg/ml. This variation in concentration was undertaken to have a clear understanding of its antioxidant property. The results indicate very good antioxidant activities of Kutajarishtam and this could be one of its important medicinal mechanisms.
The use of beneficial microorganisms in the regeneration of forest species is a rational approach that both reduces inputs and preserves forest ecosystems. From this perspective, the objectives of this study were (i) to select the most efficient mycorrhizal complex and (ii) to evaluate the effects of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) selected of argan trees [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] from southwest Morocco on the growth of argan plants in nursery conditions. The result of the mycorrhizal potential test favoured the soils harvested in the Argana and Bouyzakarne argan forests. The results of inoculation of argan plants by the AMF confirm the strong dependence of the argan tree on the native AMF for the improvement of the quality of seedlings in nurseries. The weight of the aerial and root dry matter and the ratio (dry root weight / dry leaf weight) are the criteria which give the best estimate of this growth. It would therefore be interesting to make the best use of this potential and to transfer mycorrhizal plants with efficient strains to the field in order to improve their survival and their initial growth.
Tamil Nadu has many coastal regions since it’s the tip touching the Indian Ocean. There are many different coasts where seaweeds and algae are easily obtained. Two different coasts were selected and the species were collected. They were identified. After identification, the DNA was isolated and restricted with different restriction enzymes, then electrophoresed. Using labeled molecular marker, number of polymorphism was counted in case of restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using the data from RFLP, molecular maps for each species were constructed. The results revealed that there was a diversity and variability among the same species of organisms obtained from different locations.
Arachis hypogaea L. belongs to leguminous family with a rich source of proteins and oils. It also includes, however, a part of the phytonutrients that are important in the drug industry. In this study, the various solvent extracts of different parts of the plant were tested for the presence of phytochemicals. The results revealed the presence of fats, and oils, phenol, alkaloids although the saponins, glycosides, considered negative in most of the extracts. The latest testing of phytonutrients in various parts of shelled nut plants shows that these could also be used as dietary supplements with safe impacts.
Sprouts are made from different sources such as mung, matki, chana, and vata in India. It is absolutely nutritious and wealthy in proteins pushes human flourishing and is eaten up by all class of individuals. In India, the sprouts are on a standard level included at home or made on little scale and sold in neighbourhood grandstands in open condition by little units. The microbiology of the packed sprouts is studied less in India and especially in Chennai. Thus the study was formed with an objective to identify and characterise the microorganisms from the packed sprouts in India. The microorganisms were identified by the standard morphological and biochemical characterisitics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella typhi and Aspergillus niger were present.
Dye industries waste are not properly treated it is directly let in to the river so to find out economical way to remove such coloring pollutant In this work adsorption of methylene blue using various adsorbent such as groundnut shell, and tea waste were used. Among these by keeping the adsorbent dose as constant, the variation of adsorbate concentration at constant contacting time for the process. In which for Tea waste at 100 mg/L showed 70% adsorption, as increased adsorption efficiency and drops down at the mid stage & finally reaches 65% for 500 mg/L. Ground nutshell shows an unusual increase & decrease from 29% to 15% then to 53% Dye removal efficiency.
Dry seeds (10% sprinkled state content) of mung bean [Vigna radiate L. wilczek] were treated with 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy ˠ-irradiation to study the agronomic properties of two mung bean cultivars. A wide level of progress exists in the aggregate of the characters. The Mutagenic repercussions for germination, continuation, pollen fertility, number of branches, changes from 35.65 (500 Gy) to 57.71 (100Gy), 55.50 (500 Gy) to 75.43 (100 Gy), 65.23(500 Gy) to 87.71(100 Gy), 59.32 (500Gy) to 83.20 (100Gy), 38.23 (100Gy) to 45.79 (400Gy), 40.55 (500 Gy) to 50.14 (300 Gy), 49.05 (500 Gy) to 76.47 (100 Gy), 47.36 (500 Gy) to 74.00 (100 Gy), 5.85 (500 Gy) to 7.34 (100 Gy) and 5.73 (500 Gy) to 7.56 (100 Gy), 4.91 (500 Gy) to 6.81 (100 Gy), 4.96 (500 Gy) to 6.98 (100 Gy) for VBN3 and Co7 mix emblematically.
Carnation is an important floricultural crop that is commercially cultivated for its ornamental cut flowers. The development of an efficient in vitro callus induction and plant regeneration protocol is the first requisite of genetic transformation for creating improved cultivars through transgenic technologies. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of different culture media combinations containing BAP and 2,4-D for in vitro callus induction in carnation cultivar "Irene" by using leaf and nodal segments. The study exhibited that all the culture media combinations produced variable results in terms of callus induction. Nodal segments responded earlier callus initiation in comparison of leaf segments. High-frequency callus induction from both the tested explant types was reported on culture media combination CM-3 containing full strength basal MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg/L BAP and 3.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Present study concludes that the protocol thus established could be effectively utilized for somatic embryogenesis, protoplast culture and genetic transformation studies for carnation improvement.
This study was conducted to determine the detailed morphological and anatomical characters of the whole plant of Trichodesma indicum. The morphological and anatomical study was carried out using standard techniques for all parts such as stem, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, root and also powder microscopy was performed. The transverse section of the leaf reveals the presence of epidermal trichomes and midrib. Both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the midrib is single-layered and have collateral vascular bundles. The single-layered upper epidermis of the lamina is covered with a thick cuticle. The lower epidermal cells contain anisocytic stomata and unicellular, unbranched trichomes. The transverse section of the young stem shows continuous primary xylem and phloem whereas old stem shows continuous secondary phloem and xylem. The microscopy of the flower shows the presence of sepals which has outer and inner epidermis with inner spongy and outer palisade cells. The petals have inner and outer epidermal cells with intermediate mesophyll tissue. The stamen consists of thin wall anther with spiral annular thickenings. The gynoecium comprises of thick conical ovary lengthy style and small stigma. The ovary consists of outer and inner epidermal layers and middle parenchymatous ground tissue. The fruit consists of inner sclerenchymatous endocarp and outer parenchymatous epicarp. The longitudinal and transverse section of the seed reveals the hard testa which comprises outer sclera testa and inner sacro testa. The transverse section of the root consists of single-layered epidermis and parenchyma and followed by the parenchymatous cortex. The powder microscopy of the stem shows trichomes, thick-walled fibers, and vessels. This study as extensive research on morphology and anatomy of stem, leaf, root, flower, fruit, seed and powder microscopy is helpful for the researchers to differentiate with other plants and further to take up the research for this traditionally valuable herb.
The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Swietenia macrophylla crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. The antimicrobial activity of the oily extract against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, yeast and fungus strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The crude extract was subjected to various phytochemicals analysis. The demonstrated qualitative phytochemical tests exhibited the presences of common phytocompounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils as major active constituents. The SMCM seed extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and illustrated MIC and MBC values ranging from 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml.
Nendran is the popular variety grown commercially in different regions due to its wider adaptability and high degree of tolerance to drought in a perennial cropping system. A field experiment was performed in randomized block design with ten treatments of various ratios of nitrogen and potassium to study their nutrient concentrations in banana leaves and soil at vegetative and harvesting stage. The results revealed that the treatment 9 with the ratio of N250P80K400 showed the highest mineral content in leaves at both the vegetative and harvesting stage. Therefore the fertilizers with the dosage of N250P80K400 are optimum for growing the plants.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate various Genetic parameters like Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance and Genetic advance percent as mean for twenty-six genotypes of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) L. by using RBD design in Rabi 2018 – 2019 at Experimental farm of the lovely professional university, Punjab. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficient variation (PCV and GCV) was reported in number of secondary branches (38.98 and 33.82), harvest index (35.58 and 25.49), biological yield (35.40 and 30.24), seed yield per plant (31.02 and 29.18) and number of primary (24.04 and 20.83), High magnitude heritability was recorded in all most all characters except harvest index and seeds per silique. High genetic advance recorded for plant height (42.06), length of the main shoot (42.35) and biological yield (45.47), genetic advance percent mean recorded high recorded for all most all traits except days to first flower, whereas selection of above traits would help in the effective improvement on seed yield per plant.
The study aimed to isolate and determine seed-borne fungi associated with Cereal crop- Rice .The seeds sample were procured from Burdwan, W.B, India. The seed sample was hold on in artifact bag. Total 5 used to were wont to identification of seed borne fungi. The four flora genera, Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Cochlioboplus was found to be conspicuously related to totally different seeds of rice. Among them the share of incidence of Rhizopus sp. is predominently high all methods, used in isolation. The 18S rRNA sequence based molecuar methodology performed for phylogenetically determine the foremost pathogenic Rhizopus oryzae. Histopathology of apparently in infected seeds confined to plant structure fragments by Rhizopus oryzae in episperm and reproductive structure, embryonic region of Rice.
Nowadays finding the Easy and Economical way to treat the industrial wastewater is the raising ideas in newer technology. In this work adsorption of methylene blue using various adsorbent such as groundnut shell, and tea waste were used in batch studies at a constant dye concentration of 300 mg/l, adsorbent dose of 0.5 gm groundnut shell powder, and Spent tea powder. The time of Agitation was varied by 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min. After the time of agitation of 100 min, Maximum dye removal of 86% was observed in spent tea powder and 80% was observed in Groundnut shell powder.
Citric acid can be generated from Manihot esculenta peel by utilizing the fungus Aspergillus niger grown in various carbon and nitrogen sources. The medium enhanced with glucose showed elevated citric acid output. The output of citric acid was decreased by ammonium chloride and ammonium persulphate. In ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, the highest output of citric acid was noted. The optimum yield of citric acid from cassava peel using Aspergillus niger was found in 20 days of fermentation with pH3.
The current experiment was undertaken to determine and compare the breakage in plant DNA of Vigna radiate (mung bean). The mung bean was grown in two insecticides one is chloropyrifos and another one is a soft drink. Method followed to determine the DNA breakage is DNA fragmentation assay. Viable counting was estimated for each plant and fully enhanced and brought up for a study of statistic measure of which had growth issue and how many seeds didn’t accept the chemical and took it in an account for a reasons. Farmers in India have been using soft drinks as a cheaper alternative to pesticides. So here I am treating my plant with soft drink also to see whether it will cause DNA breakage. After completing DNA fragmentation assay we came to know that the control plant shows a good set of smear and darker DNA but in other plants pesticide has a sight faded smear and DNA and pesticide has a faded DNA. The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between occupational exposure to various pesticides and harm to DNA.
Investigation to find out the amount of variability present in the Crossandra [Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees] was carried out at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam during 2016-17 using local Nilakottai genotype. The mutagens employed were gamma rays at different estimates of phenotypic variance (phenotypic variation) were higher compared to the genotypic variance (genotypic variation) for all growth and flower characters, indicating the influence of environment. Among the morphological characters studied, high (phenotypic and genotypic variation) were recorded for a number of flowers per plant. Whereas all the other traits showed moderate to low values. All the traits recorded very high heritability in M2 generation in mutant populations of Nilakottai local. The genetic advance as per cent of the mean was high for plant height, number of leaves, internodal length, number of branches, length of the branch, number of days for first flower to emerge, number of spikes per plant, number of flowers per spike, number of flowers per plant, length of spike, yield of flowers per plant, weight of 100 flowers. High heritability values recorded for all the traits measured indicates that genetic variation can be created using Nilakottai local thus ensure continuous improvement through breeding of Crossandra plant.
The present study describes the isolation of some unique bacteria from soil and compost samples on a culture medium prepared from the leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus (Carrot Grass). On the basis of colony morphology, 12 morphotypes were selected that were found to exhibit plant growth promoting activities by production of IAA and solubilizing phosphate. Out of these, 3 bacterial isolates were found to significantly stimulate the growth of Chickpea plant grown in a pot under normal environmental conditions. The major growth parameters that were positively influenced by bacterial treatment were plant height, root length, root width and root dry weight. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these three isolates shared maximum homology with Methylorubrum rhodesianum with varying percentage of similarity.
Plastic is considering the mother industry to hundreds of products but the lack of biodegradability focused attention on a potentially huge environmental pollution problem. Aliphatic polyesters, poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are biodegradable by microorganisms, which possess cutinolytic enzymes. Alternaria alternata-ST01, showed both high growth and enzyme activity on yeast glucose malt broth (YGMB) medium fed with PCL film than on YGMB medium without PCL film under shaking and stationary conditions. The hydrolytic enzyme activity of the culture on ρ-nitrophenylpalmitate indicated the fungus possesses cutinase. This activity was confirmed by the degradation of PCL film, which reached the maximum (72.09%) and (56.49%) within a short time (15 days) under shaking and stationary conditions respectively. Interestingly, in the absence of carbohydrate source in the YM medium, the fungus depends on PCL and the degradation was stimulated to record 93.33% on the 15th day. The non-significant relationship was recorded between the enzyme and protein production and the pH value. Scanning electron microscope showed cracks and erosion on the PCL film surface treated with A. alternata-ST01. These results suggest that the extracellular cutinase of Alternaria alternata-ST01 may be useful for the biological degradation of plastic wastes.
WRKY TFs represent a large family of transcriptional regulators that play a key role in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from seeds. It is grown in semi-arid regions and is resistant to abiotic stresses such as drought, temperature and salinity. However, stress resilience in safflower is poorly understood. In the present study, by analyzing available EST data set, we identified 21 putative CtWRKYs in safflower. The CtWRKYs were classified into three groups based on the phylogeny of their WRKY domains. Majority of identified CtWRKYs categorized into group III. Also, abiotic stress response of five CtWRKYs was studied in safflower plants subjected to drought, temperature, cold, salt and dehydration stresses by qRT-PCR. All the CtWRKYs were responsive to multiple abiotic stresses, suggesting they positively or negatively affect plant resistance to various abiotic stresses. Our results will be useful for further functional characterization of CtWRKYs and stress tolerance in safflower.
There is a high demand for amylase because of the low price and abundance of the starch feedstock from which bio-ethanol, food and chemicals can be produced. However, the cost and efficiency of amylase cocktails remain a significant bottleneck to the availability of amylase to meet the high industrial demand to sustain the economically competitive production processes. The method employed in enzyme production is largely responsible for the high cost of the enzymes. There is a dare need to produce low cost and efficient α-amylase. The use of agricultural waste is a good approach to producing low-cost amylase. α-Amylase was produced by Aspergillus sydowii IMI 502692 using Solid State Fermentation of cassava root fibre (5 g) buffered with (% w/v): CaCl2.2H2O, 0.05 g; (NH4)2SO4, 1 g; KH2PO4, 0.3 g; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.05 g; cow blood meal, 0.3 g; Tween 20, 0.5% (v/v), 5 mM Mn2+ and 100 ml deionized water. Time-course of α-amylase production by A. sydowii IMI 502692 revealed a single peak of α-amylase activity (1.327U ml-1) and biomass production (0.327 g) at day 2 with a corresponding culture pH of 3.620. Supernatant fluid, 125 ml 20 mM phosphate buffer extract, from the culture, was concentrated by dialysis (4.5 by 50 cm bag) against changes of 5M sucrose solution until 5.6 folds concentrations were achieved. The dialysate partially purified through ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 shows a single protein band with the amylolytic activity which gave 4.38% retention of overall activity with 3.16 folds purification. There was a 3.45 folds recovery of dialysate with 2.79% yield relative to the total activity. Optimal activity and stability retained 100% of the original activity for 1 h and also retained above 47% activity at 61ºC for 1 h. α-Amylase optimal pH activity was at 6.0 and stable at pH 3 to 7 for 1 h with more than 70% activity retention. Sr2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ inhibited the activity of α-amylase from A. sydowii IMI 502690 while Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ induced its activity.
Over the few years, there is an increased interest in the microbial enzymes to overcome its inability to meet the current and future requirements of the World. In the search of a kind, sucrase has a vital role to play with its variety of applications, particularly in the food and biofuel productions. In addition to their vast and varied applications, newer microbes are to be screened for sucrase production with their desirable properties. There are two saccharolytic enzymes induced by sucrose in Bacillus species which is encoded by SacB and SacA in the an extracellular levansucrase and an intracellular, respectively. In this experimental analysis, Plackett Burman Design was used for screening of nutrients for sucrase production by Bacillus subtilis. Sucrase activity was optimized by Plackett Burman design in Production Medium and then purified by column chromatography. Using MINITAB 15 Software, Sucrose, Yeast Extract, and Ferrous Sulphate had major source influence on sucrase activity compared to other components. In column purification, maximum amount of enzymes was obtained from the concentration of 0.5M NaCl-eluted sample.
The compound possessing benzoid skeleton has been obtained from the leaves of an endemic plant to Western Ghats, Salacia beddomei a prospective medicinal plant. The Structure of the isolated compound was characterized based on spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial, antifeedant and insecticidal capability of the isolated terpenoid were evaluated. The results revealed that the isolated metabolite showed significant bioactivities which could be utilized for therapeutical research.
Antifungal development of solvent extract of Heterostemma trilobactum have been investigated against human pathogenic developments, for instance, Aspergillus sp., Candida albicans and Fusarium moniliform. The various solvents expels were viewed as amazing against test living thing anyway the ethyl acetate induction and ethanol isolates appeared, apparently, to be best antifungal pros when diverged from watery and chloroform remove. Overpowering ailments address an essential issue to prosperity and they are one of the essential driver of hopelessness and mortality around the globe. The assurance from against contamination specialists and with the peril during postponed treatment with a couple of prescriptions due to this helpful plants are commonly used by the ordinary remedial experts for assuaging various diseases in their regular practice. Since old events, plants have been a model wellspring of drug. They showed the information concerning the new profile of antifungal meds obtaining from remedial plants.
The present work was performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of Glycyrrhiza sp. against various pathogens. It is one of the most seasoned home grown plants popular for its huge assortment of useful characters. The plant was extracted with ethanol and the crude extract was tested for anti mycotic property against Candida albicans, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp. and Penicilium marneffei at various concentrations. Positive controls utilized were amphotericin B (100 units/plate). The zone of inhibition was estimated and the results proved that the ethanol extract of the plant had potential inhibitory activity against all the pathogens.
Present study aims to investigate the source-sink relationship in hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during rabi, 2013-14 by selective defoliation and to know the consequent influence on crop microclimate. The study consisted of 14 treatments for analyzing the relationship. The results revealed that growth components like plant height, DMP and yield components like grain and stover yield were influenced by leaf removal. The source-sink relationship was negatively correlated with leaf removal, explaining 82% of variation in yield. With leaf removal explaining there was a linear relationship between implying with. More the leaves removed, lesser the yield attributes as exhibited by T12 and T13, wherein only single leaf was allowed as source. However, the cob leaf as a source possibly translocated more to the sink in compared to tassel leaf as the former was closer to the sink. The higher light interception in T1 and low in T12 coupled with low and high canopy temperature respectively could be attributed as reasons for their relative performance.
Ashoka is India's oldest tree, widely known as an ashok briksh, it is recognized by botanists as Saraca asoca. (Roxb.) Wilde belongs to Caesalpinaceae family. In this study the phytochemicals present in the bark were investigated. Around 1000 gm of air-dried rough powder content from Saraca asoca bark was extracted for 36 hours with ethanol and trichloromethane in a Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract was obtained around 165 and 150 g from ethanol and chloroform respectively, resulting in an individual yield of 16.5 per cent and 15 per cent w/w for dried powder. The primary bark testing of Saraca asoca was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents illustrated the presence of phytosterols, sugars and flavonoids.
The antifungal activity of eight medicinal plants to be specific Aloe vera, Ocimum sanctum,Cenetella asiatica, Piper betle, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Ocimum basilicum and Azadirachta indica were determined against plant pathogenic organism(Collectotrichum falcatum causing Red rot of sugarcane) Colletotrichum sp. Agar well – diffusion assay".
The plants leaves were extracted with different solvents like chloroform, ethanol and Distilled water The results revealed that among all the plants Vitex negundo exhibited highest antifungal activity (24 mm) against the plant pathogen tested over other plants.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced mainly from grapes by fermentation. Now a days, many fruits have been used for preparing wine. Banana wine is a recent advancement in production of wine. In this work, different varieties of ripened banana such as sevvalai and morris types were used for the production of wine using Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Fermentation was done with different pH and time for the wine production. Alcohol percentage classifies wine and other alcoholic beverages. In this study, maximum alcohol content was found to be 8.5% at pH 9 and least alcohol content was found to be 1.3% at pH. Optimum time was found to be 30 days in which alcohol content was found to be 8.4% at pH 9 for sevvalai. For moris banana type, alcohol content was found to be 6.67% at pH 9. The maximum acid content for optimum time period of 30 days was found to be 5.42% for moris type of banana at pH 9 and 4.2% at pH 9 for sevvalai type of banana. The peak reducing sugar content has been also found for optimum time of 30 days sample 585 µg in moris at pH 9 and 598 µg in sevvalai at PH 9. This study suggests that the wine produced from banana was found to have good physio-chemical characteristics.
Tinospora cordifolia is a medicinally important plant and has special place in the Indian therapies of disease treatments hence listed in a prioritized medicinal plant. Because of modern day deforestation and over harvesting of medicinal plants, we need alternate rapid regeneration methods for such medicinally important plants as their seeds are not easily available and dramatic change in the environment because high dose of pollution not easily favors the growth of seedlings. The in vitro regeneration technique provide efficient tool for multiplication of plants on large scale. Hence, in this study we attempt to induce callus formation and regenerations of shoot by using leaf bit and shoot tip in MS media amended with different combinations of phyto-hormones. We observed that the combinations of BAP with 2, 4 D shown significant induction of callus with maximum average fresh weight while regeneration of shoot not observed in any combinations of phyto-hormones.
In the present study, the various effects like aeration rates, vitamins, and nitrogen sources are examined with the growth of Haematococcus lacustris (H. lacustris) in a condition where the cells are subjected to 24 hrs lighting with continuous aeration. There are various physical and chemical parameters which control the growth rate of H. lacustris. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of culture media and light intensities on the growth of H. lacustris in batch culture. There are two main stages of growth involved, mainly the green stage and red stage. In the green stage the cells are divided and forms the maximum cell concentration of 404x104 ml-1, which corresponds to the growth rate of 33x 104 with a light intensity of 2500 -5000 lux. the culture solution was subjected to 24x7 lighting along with the aeration.
With the studies done on the antioxidant activity by DPPH method for the biomass of Haematococcus lacustris, linear scavenging activity of up to 29% was observed. Hence this species shows significant antioxidant activity when compared to anti-oxidant obtained from other natural and synthetic sources. An extensive study can be done on animals to prove the activity against various free radicle causing diseases with valid data.
Overwhelming metals are one of the most significant natural poisons. An examination was done to discover the impact of aluminium in hydroponics culture on the germination of Raphanus sativus, Vigna radiata and Cicerarietinum. The plants were permitted to develop in fixed hydroponic culture at different groupings of aluminium chloride at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mM). It was discovered that there was abatement in germination rate with an expansion in the centralization of the aluminium. Raphanus sativus and Vigna radiata seeds were able to withstand an aluminium concentration of 10 mM and 25 mM, respectively while Cicer arietinum was very sensitive to Al and could withstand only up to 5 mM of aluminium.
A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. In view of the increasing incidence of gram-negative infections, studies were initiated to evaluate the effect of herbal extracts on Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis and sepsis. We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Archis hypongea as compared to Ofloxacin in E. coli induced peritonitis. It is the fourth important oilseed crop of the world in production after soybean, cottonseed and rapeseed. Chemical constituents present in the plant are acids, arachin, lecithin protein, flavonoids, beta-carotene, amino acids, minerals, fat, carbohydrates etc. It has varies pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, ant mutagenic, ant proliferative, anti-inflammatory. Rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg/bwt dose for 3 days and fourth day with E. coli (1×108 CFU/ml) strain and consecutively 3 days treatment. Mortality was monitored for 14 days. After the death of rats or completion of the experiment rats were sacrifice and kidney were used for our protocol. Colonies were count and statically analysis was done. Results showed a significant depression of phagocytic activity occurred in E. coli-infected mice as compared with control mice that were not exposed to the bacterial challenge. Pretreatment of mice with Archis hypongea improved bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils. In the Ofloxacin treated mice although bacterial clearance was rapid, polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. These data denote that the intraperitoneal administration of Archis hypongea extract significantly modifies the course of E. coli-induced peritonitis and bacteremia due, in part, to extract-induced enhancement of macrophage function.
Mangrove crops were used in drugs for folklore. Mangroves are woody trees and shrubs that develop in tropical and subtropical intertidal areas. A. marina, frequently referred to as gray mangrove or white mangrove, is a mangrove species categorized as Acanthaceae (formerly Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae) crop genus. It happens in the intertidal regions of estuarine areas, as with other mangroves. The A. marina samples have more effective antioxidant activity. This survey report views on various antimicrobial and phytochemical activities of Avicennia species.
Plants are the primary food producers and they comprise the essential wellspring of carbon, nutrients, minerals, protein and unsaturated fats. Plant proteins can help in anticipation of cardiovascular illness, disease, bone misfortune and diabetes. Cereal grains, legumes including oil-seed provide proteins to the entire animal kingdom. Plant enzymes like proteases, amylases, cellulose and lipase are useful in the digestion of raw food. Plants have been used to treat many ailments from time immemorial. Moreover, much work has been done to study the therapeutic effect of secondary metabolites from plants rather than the primary metabolites namely proteins, carbohydrates, enzymes and lipids. This review stresses upon the use of plant proteins and enzymes as a whole for treating diseases/disorders rather than the secondary metabolites.