Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF COMBINING ABILITY AND GRAIN YIELD OF SOME TROPICAL MAIZE INBRED LINES IN THE NORTH CENTRAL REGION OF VIETNAM

L. Q. TUONG, L. Q. TUNG, N. L. PHUC, N. T. TUAN, N. V. GIANG, P. T. L. THU, D. T. K. CUC, T. D. XUAN, V. X. DUONG, N. T. TRUNG, N. P. D. NGUYEN, N. N. TOAN, T. D. KHANH, K. H. TRUNG

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 1-11

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the second-largest annual crop after rice and is widely used for animal feed in the livestock and poultry industry in Vietnam. However, climate changes increase pests and disease infestation cause adverse impacts on maize productivity. Hence, generating new maize lines/varieties with high yield potential and resistance to pests and diseases is imperative work. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the combining ability, yield components and main abiotic and biotic stress tolerances of eight tropical maize inbred lines developed by single-cross for the North Central region. The results have indicated that 4 lines including D4, D8, D54 and D100, which attained high combining ability with the potential agronomic traits of interest. In the field trials, among the hybrid combinations, the D4 x D54 showed the highest yield potential by 7.47 tons/ha, followed by D8 x D54 (7.41 tons/ha) and the last (D100 x D54) was 7.34 tons/ha, exceeded 10.2% to 12.1% on the average and was higher than the yield of control DK9901 variety. Those inbred lines have shown good agronomic characteristics, adaptability, yield stability and acceptable abiotic and biotic stress tolerances for the maize cultivating areas in the North Central of this country.

Original Research Article

LOW-COST MEDIA IS AN ALTERNATIVE NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO REGENERATE in vitro Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. INIMITABLE MEDICINAL PLANT

MD. RASAL- MONIR, MD. NASIR HOSSAIN SANI, JASIM UDDAIN, SOURAV MODAK, SAMAR BISWAS, MOHAMMAD HUMAYUN KABIR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 12-22

The present research was carried out to develop an alternative in vitro low-cost culture medium for regeneration of an inimitable medicinal plant Gynura procumbens. The nodal segment has been utilized as explant and six separate types of low-cost medium (LCM) which includes LCM-1 (100 mL coconut water); LCM-2 (150 mL coconut water); LCM-3 (200 mL coconut water); LCM-4 (100 mL banana pulp); LCM-5 (150 mL banana pulp); LCM-6, (200 mL banana pulp) and the complete strength MS medium was employed as a control treatment for the standardization of in vitro low-cost regeneration protocol for the Gynura procumbens. All the culture media were supplemented with 2.0 mg / L BA + 0.5 mg / L NAA for shooting and rooting with 0.5 mg / L IBA. Compared to other low-cost culture media, culture media LCM-2 showed the best results in shoot initiation, shoot multiplication, and root formation. As regards cost analysis, LCM-2 appears to minimize cost (78.22%) of the medium per plantlet compared to the regular standard MS medium. Medium of acclimatization consisting of garden soil + Vermicompost + coconut dust (1:1:1, v / v) demonstrated the best hardening medium with maximum survival rate and robust growth performance. Our findings suggest that the LCM-2 culture medium for the regeneration of Gynura procumbens aseptically is an economically cost-efficient protocol and an alternative to the regular standard MS medium.

Original Research Article

FIRST REPORT OF Rhizoctonia solani CAUSING DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROT DISEASE ON Tetraclinis articulata SEEDLINGS

R. EL HADDADI, A. ERRIFI, S. MSAIRI, A. OUAZZANI TOUHAMI, A. DOUIRA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 23-33

Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is a soil-borne, necrotrophic fungus causing damping off, root rot and stem canker in many cultivated plants worldwide. Recently, R. solani was isolated from thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.) Mast.] seedlings showing damping-off disease in Sidi Amira Forest nursery, northwest Morocco. A pure culture of R. Solani, originally isolated from (5 weeks) T. articulata diseased seedlings, was used as inoculum of growing media with a (3:1,v,v) mixture of peat/vermiculite filled in 400 ml plastic containers with 50 wells. For the control containers, mock inoculum was added in each well. Pregerminated seeds of T. Articulata, brought from a Kourifla forest stand, were sown in a set of 4 containers for each treatment. Seedlings were grown up in a glasshouse in separated blocks to avoid any risk of contamination. After 3 weeks, pre-emergence, post-emergence damping-off, root rot and stem necrosis were observed in seedlings grown in containers with inoculated substrate while control sets remained asymptomatic. Koch’s postulate is verified by reisolating R. Solani from roots and hypocotyl of seedlings grown in inoculated growing media. Pathogenicity test revealed that pre-emergence, post-emergence mortality rate, disease index and growth parameters were significantly different comparing to control.

 

Original Research Article

STUDY OF THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND GERMINATION CAPACITY OF Cicer arietinum INFESTED BY Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.)

AIMAD ALLALI, SANAE REZOUKI, BOUCHRA LOUASTÉ, YAMNA BOUCHELTA, TAHA EL KAMLI, NOUREDDINE ELOUTASSI, MOHAMED FADLI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 44-56

This work focuses on the study of the deterioration caused by the infestation of Callosobruhus maculatus insect pest of chickpea seeds and their consequences on the germination potential and nutritive quality of Cicer arietinum seeds. Mass rearing was carried out for several generations followed by sorting of the seeds into four categories (N0, N1, N2 and N3) according to their degree of infestation. In addition, we performed an analysis of the infestation effect on the germination and nutritional value of the seeds.

The results show that C. maculatus caused deterioration of chickpea seeds by altering several biological parameters. These damages vary according to the severity of the infestation. Seed germination decreases with the degree of infestation until complete annihilation. The same result was obtained for the length of germinating radicles.

The metabolic activities of the insect induce several changes in the seeds biochemical composition. Proteins and lipids increase depending on the severity of infestation, as well as amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, starch and crude cellulose decrease, while glucose and reducing sugars increase.

Depending on the degree of infestation, the proportion of phosphorus and vitamin D increases, while other vitamins and trace elements progressively decrease until exhaustion.

Infestation with C. maculatus causes severe damage to the seed resulting in reduced germination capacity, nutritional quality and commercial value of C. arietinum seeds.

Original Research Article

PURE NATURAL STANDS OF Castanopsis boisii, AN EDIBLE CHESTNUT IN VIETNAM

TRAN CAO NGUYEN, TRIEU THAI HUNG, PHUNG DINH TRUNG, TRINH NGOC BON, NGUYEN VAN TUAN, TRAN HAI LONG, PHAM DINH SAM, NINH VIET KHUONG, TRAN HOANG QUY, HOANG THANH SON, PHAM HONG HAI, PHAM THI LAN, TRUONG XUAN TIEN, TRAN VAN DO

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 57-65

Castanopsis boisii is a multipurpose forest tree, native to South China and Vietnam. The nut of C. boisii is edible and has been widely used as daily food. The study in North Vietnam indicated that more than 70% of stems and 80% basal areas of C. boisii were found in natural stands, indicating the availability of purely natural forests of C. boisii.  Even though, up to 14 other tree species were also found mixing with C. boisii. The density of tree group (diameter at breast height/DBH ≥ 10 cm) of C. boisii ranged 43–51 stems/1,000 m2, sapling density (height > 2 m and DBH < 10 cm) ranged 13–25 stems/225 m2 and seedlings (height ≤ 2 m) ranged 28–101 stems/20 m2. Stem/DBH distributions of the pool of C. boisii had bell-shapes for tree group with peaks in 13–17 cm DBH. Stem/height distributions had bell-shapes with both right and left skews, and in-continuous shape with two peaks at 7–9 cm and 13–15 cm DBH. Meanwhile, crown area/height distributions had all bell-shapes with left skews. It is concluded that for sustainable nut production, stand development and tree diversity conservation, silvicultural treatments must be applied by remaining all found species in the stands, removing diseased and bed growth stems of all species, removing stems of C. boisii in dense areas and ensuring regenerations of C. boisii as seedlings, saplings, and trees. In addition, less than 150 fruited trees/ha must also be considered for high nut production and quality. Silvicultural treatments should forward stand to have stem/DBH distribution of bell-shape. 

Original Research Article

CULTIVAR DIFFERENCES IN EPICUTICULAR WAX CONTENT AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF β-keto acyl CoA synthase 1 (kcs1) AN EPICUTICULAR WAX SYNTHESIZING GENE IN GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

U. LOKESH, B. MANOHARA REDDY, B. VENKATESH, M. PANDURANGAIAH, N. JAYAMMA, N. JAGADEESH KUMAR, CHINTA SUDHAKAR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 66-78

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the important oil seed crops cultivated widely in the parched and arid regions and drastically affected by drought conditions worldwide. To mitigate the drought stress, plants adapt their aerial parts with epicuticular waxes to prevent non-stomatal water loss and reduce heat load. Genotypic variation exists in the accumulation of epicuticular wax content (EWC) in many crop plants including groundnut. The present study compared the differences in EWC, RWC (relative water content), CMS (cell membrane stability) and expression of kcs1 gene in six local groundnut cultivars namely Harithandra, Vemana, Anantha, Kadiri-5, Kadiri-6 and Kadiri-9 subjected to drought stress. The epicuticular wax content was increased gradually from day-10 to day-60 (growth stage) and was decreased day-70 to day-100 (harvest stage) in all cultivars under control conditions. Results revealed that the cultivar Kadiri-9 showed higher EWC than other cultivars under control conditions throughout the experiment. One-month-old groundnut plants grown under normal conditions were subjected to drought stress for 10 days. Drought stress resulted a significant increase in the EWC in all groundnut cultivars, however the EWC was increased by two fold in the cultivar Kadiri-9, but less than one fold increase in the EWC in other cultivars. Ten-days after drought stress treatment, cultivar Kadiri-9 exhibited significantly higher RWC and lesser electrolyte leakage than the other cultivars. SEM leaf images clearly showed more densely accumulated wax crystals on the leaves of cultivar Kadiri-9 and were less densely accumulated on leaf-surface of other cultivars. Real Time - PCR analysis further revealed that relative expression of kcs1 gene was significantly increased in cultivar Kadiri-9 compared to other cultivars under drought stress. This suggests that the cultivars with higher EWC may mitigate the water stress effects by conservation of water more effectively than the cultivars with lower EWC.

Original Research Article

RAPID In vitro PROPAGATION AND GENETIC FIDELITY EVALUATION OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT MEXICAN CORIANDER (Eryngium foetidum L.)

BISWAJIT JENA, BHAGYASHREE BISWAL, ALOK KUMAR GIRI, REENA PARIDA, LAXMIKANTA ACHARYA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 79-88

Eryngium foetidum L., a biennial herb has been used tremendously as a medicinal plant mostly in tropical regions of the world. With its wide area of ethno-medicinal uses and the growing sector of ayurvedic medicine have increased demand for the plant. Hence there is an essential need for conservation and cultivation of this plant for the future. Here, an efficient large-scale clonal propagation protocol has been designed using the peduncular part derived from greenhouse-maintained plants. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) media in addition with 3.0 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 mg l-1 Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was found optimum for shoot proliferation (11.3±0.64 shoots per explant) and root development (24±0.40 roots per shoot) Successive plantlet cultures were established by repeated sub-culturing on a fresh medium after each yield of newly formed shoots. The plantlets were successfully transferred to the soil after acclimatization. The plants have been maintained in field condition for three years. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used for validating the genetic fidelity of the in vitro generated plants at every four month interval for three years and after analysis, revealing a homogeneous amplification profile for all in vitro plants analysed against the mother plant.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF Botrytis cinerea Pers. in vitro AND in vivo IN STRAWBERRY (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.)

W. KHIRALLAH, N. MOUDEN, A. M. AL BATNAN, A. OUAZZANI CHAHDI, K. SELMAOUI, R. BENKIRANE, A. OUAZZANI TOUHAMI, A. DOUIRA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 98-113

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of seven fungicides on Botrytis cinerea growth and control of gray mold in strawberry plants. Thus, the mycelial growth, germination and sporulation of an isolate of B. cinerea obtained from rotted strawberry collected from a strawberry farm located at Dlalha in Gharb-Loukkos region (Morocco) was tested in vitro in presence of seven fungicides currently used in the control of fungal diseases of strawberry crop. Additionally, the in vivo assay was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these chemical products in repressing Botrytis development on strawberry plants versus different incubation and sampling time. Among the fungicides tested, Fenhexamid, Pyrimethanil were found to be most effective showing complete inhibition of mycelial growth even at lowest tested concentrations and during the four weekly intervals of incubation, Pyrimethanil, Pyraclostrobin + Boscalid, Thiram and Fenhexamid at ½ Recommended dose (RD) gave better result for sporulation inhibition than Cyprodinil+Fludioxonil (80.37%), Chlorothalonil (81.3%) or Mepanipyrim (58.87%) at the recommended dose. The effectiveness of Chlorothalonil was prevalent in inhibiting conidial germination (100%), while the other fungicides were less efficient with an inhibition percentages varying from 76.33 to 85.66% in presence of Cyprodinil+Fludioxonil, ranged from 79 to 79.66% respectively at ½ RD, ¾ RD of Pyraclostrobin+Boscalid. The pulverisation of strawberry plants with the mixture of Cyprodinil and Fludioxonil or Pyraclostrobin + Boscalid in the in vivo assay decreased the disease development to 92.56% and 92.74% respectively. Coformulations application provided an efficient and prolonged control against B. cinerea survival and development on leaves. In contrary, a colonization percentage of 59.49% was noted after Mepanipyrim sprays. Moreover, the plants showed increased fresh weight after treatment with Fenhexamid (8.3 g), Cyprodinil+Fludioxonil (8.1 g) and the mixture Pyraclostrobin+Boscalid (7 g). Moreover, strawberry weight was notably improved with an average ranged from 13 g and 17.7 g. In conclusion, with careful use of fungicides, mixing site-specific fungicides with multisite fungicides, the effective life of fungicides for gray mold control can be extended.

Original Research Article

In vitro MORPHOGENESIS OF FOLIAR EXPLANTS AND PLANT REGENERATION OF Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. – A HORTICULTURAL IMPORTANT PLANT

CHITTA RANJAN DEB, P. KADUNLUNG GANGMEI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 114-123

Actinidia deliciosa or Kiwi is an important horticultural plant. Common practice of propagation of the species is through stem cutting, but poor rooting of stem cuttings limits the production of clonal planting materials. Present study aimed at development of an in vitro propagation protocol using in vitro source leaves. About 5-8 week old leaves (intact, segments and scrubbed leaves) were cultured on MS medium fortified with BA (9 µM) and sucrose (3%), where within 5-6 days of culture morphogenic response initiated and after 4 week of culture 50.5% intact leaves responded with 5 shoot buds formation; while, 41.7 and 41.6% leaf segments and scrubbed leaf segments respectively responded and registered each 7 shoot buds formation.  Shoot buds proliferated and developed multiple micro shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and BA (3 µM) where as many as 6.2 micro shoots developed in 58.3% culture per cycle. Well-developed foliated and defoliated micro shoots (4-5 cm long) were rooted on nutrient medium containing IBA (9 µM) where 50 and 56.25% rooting response registered respectively accompanied by 5 and 7 numbers of roots per shoot. The rooted plantlets were hardened on 1/4th strength liquid medium containing sucrose (1%) for 7-8 week followed by transferred to potting mix where ~82% transplants survived and 70% transplants established in the field.

Original Research Article

ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIALITY OF BIOLOGICALLY SYNTHESIZED IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

ANU KUMAR, . ANJALI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 124-128

With the advancement of technology it was observed that nanoparticles can help in various fields, because of this reason the main focus is on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Different types of methods are used for synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs like chemical reduction method and biological method. Biological synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs is more preferable because of the many limitations of chemical method. Iron nanoparticles are easily synthesized with the help of watermelon peel extract [green part of the watermelon]. Due to presence of flavinoids and sitosterol watermelon peel extract act as solvent, reducing and coating agent. Characterization of synthesized Fe3O4 NPs can be done with the help of UV spectrophotometer in range of wavelength [250-450]. The synthesized iron nanoparticles also had antibacterial activity. This method has been found eco-friendly, cost effective and less time consuming.

Original Research Article

FACTORS AFFECTING ASYMBIOTIC IMMATURE SEED CULTURE AND in vitro PROPAGATION OF Paphiopedilum insigne (WALL. Ex. LINDL.) PFITZER – A HORTICULTURAL IMPORTANT VULNERABLE ORCHID

CHITTA RANJAN DEB, HUTOKA YETOKHU JAKHA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 129-141

Paphiopedilum insigne (Orchidaceae) is a vulnerable commercially important orchid owing to its attractive flowers. A successful attempt was made to develop an efficient low cost in vitro propagation protocol from immature embryos. Immature embryos from the 210 days aged green pods was cultured on nutrient media conjunct with organic carbon, plant growth regulators under different light conditions. Within 38 days first sign of germination was recorded as nodular swelling followed by protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) formation in 85% of cultured seeds after 70 days of culture on MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), NAA and BA (2 and 6 µM in combination). The PLBs differentiated to plantlets and culture proliferated on MS medium + sucrose (3%) + 4 µM each of NAA and BA where 9 shoot buds developed per explants. Well rooted plantlets were primary hardened by maintaining on 1/10th MS liquid medium and mixture of low cost substrata (sand: Decaying organic matter: brick pieces: Charcoal pieces: dried cow dung at 1:1:1:1:1 ratio.  Hardened regenerates were transplanted to community pots along with hardening substrata and maintained under semi-controlled condition in poly-house where 75% transplants survived. Over 1500 regenerates are established in the wild.

Original Research Article

PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS FOR THE REPRODUCTION OF RARE SPECIES OF TREE-SHRUB VEGETATION OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL RUSSIAN UPLAND

VLADIMIR I. CHERNIAVSKIH, VALERY G. PRAVDIN, IRINA A. KHARLAMOVA, ELENA V. DUMACHEVA, TATYANA N. GLUBSHEVA, SVETLANA V. KOROLKOVA, NATALIA A. SOPINA, DANIIL P. KORYAKOV

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 142-149

An important element of reforestation is the reproduction and reintroduction of rare and endangered species of tree-shrub resources. Methods of accelerated reproduction of red book species of shrubs Daphne altaica Pall and Cotoneaster alaunicus Golitsin have been developed for the purpose of their use in reforestation in the territory of the region. On an average, in three years the maximum survival was provided by the option using «Biogor KM»: soaking of cuttings in combination with double spraying of vegetating cuttings. The complex preparation «Biogor» of the series «KM» contributed to the provision of plants with the necessary nutrients and at the same time was a biological activator of soil fertility, a stimulator of plant growth.

Original Research Article

STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF FERULA FOETIDA SEEDS FROM DIFFERENT MANGYSHLAK POPULATIONS

M. S. SAGYNDYKOVA, A. A. IMANBAEVA, M. YU. ISHMURATOVA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 150-156

The paper presents the results related to morphological and anatomical characters of Ferula foetida seeds from different geographical origin. Seed samples collected from Tuyesu and Karynzharyk sands, and the surrounding country of the Tynimbay Shoky Upland (Western and Eastern parts). The morphological parameters were determined on the basis of the length and width of the seeds and the weight of 1000 seeds; and anatomical parameters were determined on the basis of the analysis devoted to the structure of the cross section of seeds in their central part.

The maximum values of morphological parameters were revealed in seeds collected in Karynzharyk Sands, and the minimum values are for plants growing in the surrounding country of the East Tynimbay Shoky Upland. The features of the anatomical characters of Ferula foetida seeds were described for the first time. All seed samples, regardless of plant growth, have the same structural plan and parameters of cells and tissues. The maximum sizes (10.19 ± 0.49 mm) of microscopic structures were noted for West Tynimbay Shoky Upland, and the minimum sizes (8.54 ± 0.37 mm) were recorded for ferule populations from East Tynimbay Shoky. The Weight analysis carried out showed that the maximum sizes (0.23 ±0.02), both of individual seeds, and of tissue and conceptacle sites, were identified for plants growing in Karynzharyk Sands, central part solid mass; the minimum values (0.16 ±0.005) were noted for samples collected in Tynimbay Shoky Upland. The morphological and anatomical sizes and weight of the seed material in Ferula foetida populations vary depending on the place of growth, which is explained by the difference in habitat conditions. Promising populations for the selection of seed material with subsequent introduction into the conditions of the Mangyshlak experimental botanical garden are proposed.

Original Research Article

ANTI-MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF NEEM, ASHOKA, BAMBOO AND ARANDI PLANTS

K. TILAK, M. SINGH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 175-187

Ricinus communis is plant of the castor bean or castor oil plant which is also known as Hindi name Arandi. Ricinus communis plants have high traditional and medicinal value to become a disease free healthy life and also have beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-histamic, Antinociceptive, anti-asthamatic, anti-ulcer, immune-modulatory, anti-diabetic etc. and many other medicinal propertiesthese activity of plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoid, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids etc. The authenticated Leaf drugs of Bamboo, Neem, Arandi and Ashoka were obtained from local area of Sujanpur, Pathankot and Himachal Pradesh and used for further proposed studies. In this study, the antibacterial activity of Neem, Ashoka, Bamboo and Arandi extracts towards significant microbes causing infection and infectious diseases has been investigated. Accoding to the three extracts of the plant sample which is water, water+ethanol, ethanol, has remarkably inhibited the growth of the tested bacteria i.e Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophillus. All the reports and result said that E. coli give good activity as compared to lactobacillus.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY OF SEEDS OF Pongamia pinnata BY DPPH METHOD(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)

SHABNUM SHAFI, GUNJAN MUKHERJEE, SABARI GHOSAL

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 194-199

Pongamia pinnata is commonly known as Karanj and Indian beech in English. The metabolites  present in this plant mainly  are from the class of flavonoids and oils. It also serves as a source of biodiesel. Many parts of this plant have great medicinal value like leaf and flower and possess the antioxidant activity as reported.  The aim of this study was to investigate and analyse its antioxidant properties of the principle secondary metabolite extracted from the seeds of plant. The antioxidant property was analysed by DPPH assay using n-hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate fraction and with the purified compound. The results of our study shows that the  ethyl acetate  fration of   plant seeds possesses significant antioxidant activity having IC50 values 42.51 μg/ml  which indicates that the products from this plant could be very much helpful for slowing down or preventing diseases which are induced by oxidative stress.

Original Research Article

CHIA (Salvia hispanica) THE WONDER SEEDS: A REVIEW

EKTA SHARMA, . NISHU

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 210-216

These days fascination towards novel nourishments has lengthened and numerous individuals are moving towards this new way to live healthy. This can be accomplished by good eating routine and it would be conceivable when potential medical or health advantages of their nourishment are known to the payer. In this review, an effort has been made to provide an overview of the potential health benefits and possible neutraceutical properties of the chia seeds. Salvia hispanica (chia) comes under one of the novel nourishments because of its health benefits. There are numerous assortments of chia accessible in the market and each has its own advantages. Moreover, chia is the rich source of alpha-linolenic acid which cannot be synthesized by the body. This dietary rich fibre source has various therapeutic uses and has made its place in modern diet style of people.

Original Research Article

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES ON LEAVES EXTRACT OF Murraya koenigii

MANISHA PARASHAR, GAURAV MUDGAL, JASPREET KAUR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 303-313

Murraya koenigii is one of the herbal plants, originates in India and mainly used as flavouring agent in Indian cuisine and in many other Asian countries. Due to the presence of number of phytochemicals, curry leaves exhibit properties like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancerous, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory etc. These are used to cure diseases like hypertension, hyperglycemia, cough, cold, skin infections, poisonous stings etc. Curry leaves are acidic in nature, bitter in taste having little pungent smell and are mainly used in dried form. For this present study, curry leaves were collected from Punjab agriculture university, Ludhiana. Different tests were performed in order to detect phytochemicals from curry leaves and to confirm its antimicrobial property. Pharmacological studies were done which involves study of morphology, physical properties and microscopic properties of Murraya koenigii. After performing qualitative and quantitative analysis, following phytochemicals were seem to be present in Murraya koenigii which are phenols, flavenoids, saponins, tannins, sugars, alkaloids etc. It was also seen that curry leaves show antimicrobial properties against E. coli and Saphylococus aureus which was seen by measuring the zone of inhibtion. Antioxidant properties were also detected in curry leaves by using UV 1800 spectrophotometer using DPPH.

Short Research Article

UNRAVELING THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING POTENTIAL OF MICROBES ASSOCIATED WITH Diplazium esculentum AND Clitoria ternatea

GARIMA GOSWAMI, JASVEEN BAJWA, APURVA KAUL, NIKITA GOSWAMI, SHANU MAGOTRA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 157-160

The main objective to conduct the study was to isolate and characterize the rhizobacteria and unravel their plant growth potential and biological control using various biochemical tests. The study focuses on isolation of Bacillus species related with two himalayan medicinal plant namely Diplazium esculentum and Clitoria ternatea. By cultivation dependent approach 8 bacillus isolates were obtained and further screened for various plant-growth promotion activities. Out of all the isolates only one strain was found to be positive for the production of indole acetic acid. The production of indole acetic acid during plant-microbial interaction is of immence importance because the IAA is a major phytohormone, which controls the plant growth and development. This positive strain will further be characterized based upon 16S phylogeny and will be checked in pots for its plant-growth promotion activity and for the successful development of a commercial bioformulation.

Review Article

REACTIVE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN SPECIES: KEY PLAYERS IN PLANT RESPONSE TO STRESS

ANUJA KOUL, MUNISH SHARMA, MAHIMA SHARMA, MALVIKA MEHTA, SHARADA MALLUBHOTLA, INDU BHUSHAN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 34-43

Under different biotic and abiotic stresses, plants exhibit rapid synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). At low concentrations, ROS and RNS act as signals for regulation of plant growth and development and also for defense against stress. Moreover, they have great potential to exhibit defensive roles against various biotic and abiotic stresses. ROS comprises of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen molecule and superoxide anions. RNS peroxynitrite is produced upon the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion and it has been reported as an effective regulator of cell signaling in plants by process of tyrosine nitration. Signaling mediated by ROS and RNS is chiefly related with plant hormones which affect acclimation, pathophysiology and normal ontogeny of plants. In the context of drought stress, it has been demonstrated that stress-responsive transcription factors play an important role in ROS and RNS metabolism. The present review highlights the current understanding and crosstalk between ROS and RNS in plant stress responses.

Review Article

In vitro EXPLORATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SALINITY STRESS IN ENHANCING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) BENTH. ex KURZ (ANGIOSPERMS; APOCYNACEAE)

PUNEET S. SINGH, MALINI BHATTACHARYYA, BABITA PATNI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 89-97

Rauwolfia serpentina is an endangered plant. The plant tissue culture comes to rescue when the plant has low germination rate and high medicinal value as reported in Rauwolfia. This technique is used not only for mass production of drug at cost affordable levels but also for the conservation of important species. Rauwolfia has great medicinal value due to various indole alkaloids and moreover Resperine is the main constituent. Callus culture was induced from leaf, shoot explants on Murashige and Skoog medium augmented by diverse concentrations of growth regulators for swift commencement of callus and biomass production. Rauwolfia releases many different phenolic compounds and alkaloids which are responsible for the antioxidant activity. Phenolic accumulation is stress marker in plants in response to abiotic stress such as salinity. In this review an attempt is made to highlight the phenylpropanoid pathway and phenolic acid response in Rauwolfia under salinity stress in lab conditions and thus contribute to antioxidant property of the plant. Abiotic stress leads to activation of PAL enzyme which is crucial step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supports synthesis of phenolics which have antioxidant potential of great value. The emphasis of present review is micropropogation of Rauwolfia due to its high therapuetic value and influence of salinity stress on phenylpropanoid pathway. Box plot analyses are performed on PAL enzyme activity in salt stress in callus of Rauwolfia serpentina. These results graphically depicted the PAL enzyme activity data distribution. Additional research of this species should be focussed on in vitro investigations of its pharmaceutical active mechanisms which help in formulation of curative products of high value. Moreover, molecular understanding of salinity stress which influence PAL enzyme and synthesis of phenolics will enhance the large-scale production of phytochemicals for various scientific purposes.

Review Article

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON EXTRACTION METHODS, PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOKINETICS AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF BIOACTIVE LEAD: 6-GINGEROL

SHARMA NAVNI, KUMAR ARORA, PATEL ANIKET

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 161-174

A comparative study has been made between the extraction procedures of {6}-Gingerol based on the instruments, solvents, extraction time and extraction temperature. {6}-Gingerol is the biochemically and therapeutically active amongst various constituents possessed by ginger. The extraction of {6}-Gingerol to obtain high purity compound expresses a challenging and significant task in the pharmaceutical industry because it act as lead compound having anti-tumor activity. Various extraction processes are being used to acquire active constituent from Ginger. A growing body of research suggested that 6-Gingerol has an anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-mutagenic and anti-cholesterol target also. It concluded that pressurized liquid extraction procedure is the best which provide high yield as compared to other extraction processes.

Review Article

THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF Pogostemon benghalensis: AN UPDATED REVIEW

PAYAL MITTAL, PRADEEP GOYAL

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 188-193

Pogostemon benghalensis also known as Hookloti is an annual, aromatic and undershrub, commonly found in Melghat-Maharashtra State in India. It has been the part of traditional medicinal system and being used to treat bacterial as well as fungal infections. Pogostemon benghalensis contains alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, gums, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, carbohydrate, phenolics. Pogostemon benghalensis has showed anti-tumour, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antioxidant activities. Further investigations exploring possible use of these phytochemicals as pharmacological agents are warranted. This review is an attempt to compile and documented information on different aspect of Pogostemon benghalensis. The present synthesis can guide future researchers for new insights in this plant species.

Review Article

BIOREMEDIATION OF CADMIUM

ABHIJIT GUPTA, VERSHA THAKUR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 200-209

Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals has received increasing attention worldwide because of their recalcitrant and tenacious nature which leads to severe threat to environment superiority and life of both plants and animals, causing life threatening diseases in humans. Bioremediation is measured as one of the safer, cleaner, cost operative and environmental friendly technology for decontaminating sites which are contaminated with extensive range of pollutants which is due to the unawareness concerning production, use and disposal of hazardous materials. It uses numerous agents such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae and higher plants as main tools in treating oil spills and heavy metals existing in the environment. Arrival of lethal substantial metals in the earth by the various sources mainly by industrial activities present risky impacts to sea- going and earthbound living beings and furthermore to human life. Bioremediation is a process that debases, separate and expel contaminants from soil and water. It is a characteristic procedure which depends on microscopic organisms, parasites, green growth to change the contaminants present in condition. This review discusses the sources, techniques like situ and ex situ bioremediation and microorganisms utilized in bioremediation forms which corrupts contaminants present in condition and factors influencing the bioremediation. Complete pulverization of target poisons is conceivable by bioremediation technique.

Review Article

BIODIESEL: A PROMISING ALTERNATE TO CONVENTIONAL FUELS

SUNNY DHIMAN, SHIFALI DUTT, G. MUKHERJEE

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 224-233

The extensive utilization of non-renewable resources indicates the exploitation of energy resources and this leads to increase in petroleum-based fuels prices. Thus, it is the need of hour to find out a clean, suitable and promising alternate to conventional fuels. The desired features of an alternative fuel source are its availability, renewability, lesser dependency on non-renewable resources with lesser or zero pollution. Biodiesel is one of the promising alternates to conventional fuels and is increasingly gaining importance owing to severe environmental consequences of petroleum fuelled diesel engines and the increasing stress on rapidly dwindling petroleum resources. This review article gives an overview of characterization of biodiesel; feedstocks for biodiesel production with their advantages and disadvantages.

Review Article

ALZHEIMER TREATMENT USING MEDICINAL PLANTS

SILPI SAIKIA, LEENA PRAJAPATI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 240-248

Alzheimer is a progressive neurological brain disorder.AD is characterized clinically by cognitive impairment and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and the degenerative of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The characteristics of AD are changes in personality and behaviour along with anxiety, paranoia, confusion and hallucination. The first neurotransmitter defect discovered in AD involved acetylcholine as cholinergic function is required for short term memory. Oxidative stress can be highlighted as the main reason for progressive neurodegeneration characteristic of AD. The neurotoxicity of β amyloid appears to involve oxidative stress. Many treatment has been carried out for the cure of this disorder. But none of them hassucceeded so far. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory since ancient times. Herbs and medicinal plants are used in the treatment of the many problems which motivated researchers to use them for treatment of Alzheimer.

Review Article

A REVIEW ON MAGIC OF WONDER HERB: Tinospora cordifolia

RAJWANT KAUR, PARMINDER KAUR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 249-253

Tinospora cordifolia has gained popularity as Traditional systems of medicine over allopathic drugs and increased plant use as medicinal source for human diseased conditions as witnessed in the present scenario.  The Review article on Giloy illustrate the plant diversity, plant isolated active constituent, therapeutic activity of a T. cordifolia as listed amongst 29 highly prioritized medicinal plants. Giloy is an Ayurvedic Medicine as quoted in many traditional texts for the treatment of fever, Diabetes as anti-diabetic, Skin problems, in treatment of jaundice, Anti periodic, Antispasmodic, Anti inflammatory, Anti Arthritic, Anti Oxidant, Anti Allergic, Anti Stress, Anti leprotic, Anti Malarial, Hepatoprotective, Immunomodulatory and Anti Neoplastic activities.

Review Article

BIO-MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa L.), A DIETARY SPICE USED AS A FOLKLORE MEDICINE IN INDIA: A REVIEW

SHREYA GUPTA, APURVA KOUL, JASVEEN BAJWA, SHANU MAGOTRA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 272-291

Curcuma longa or commonly name as turmeric is a common ingredient used in Indian kitchen. Its health benefits have been recognised years ago in Ayurveda. It is not only the gem of Ayurveda but its medicinal potential is also recognized by modern medical science. Traditionally and historically, believed to be originated in the lands of South East Asian countries like India, China and Bangladesh, now is grown almost throughout the tropical and subtropical terrains worldwide. In the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, turmeric is commonly known as “haldi”, and in the down south, it is called as “manjal”. The word turmeric is derived from the latin word-terra merita (meritorious earth) refers to the color of ground turmeric. The medicinal properties of this plant have been largely practiced for various diseases like asthma bronchial hyperactivity, rheumatism, diabetic wounds sinusitis smallpox, skin cancer, urinary tract infection, liver ailments. In this review we have summed up some of the important health benefits of turmeric, reviewed some new nanoparticle based formulations of turmeric which may have a great impact in the development of medical science as well as focused on its future prospects and difficulties regarding its future use. In conclusion, turmeric has wonderful medicinal properties which can be used in treatment of many diseases. With the help of nanotechnology we can inhance the properties of turmeric.

Review Article

WASTE TO ENERGY: SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY

A. VINAYAK, G. MUDGAL, G. B. SINGH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 292-302

With the advent of urbanization and globalization began the saga of ever-increasing consumerism and capitalism. To keep up with the developed nations, the developing countries too were quick to draw level resulting in their unbridled economic growth. Population growth directly contributes to increased waste generation. Over the years Indian population has jumped from 1028 million in 2001 to 1324 million in 2017. India alone chips in one-third of the total waste production in the world, yet is the least efficient in waste management. It generates more than 62 million tonnes of waste, of which less than 60% is collected and even less, about only 15% is actually processed and converted into something productive. Thus the need of the hour is to accept the gravity of the situation and start developing efficient and cost-effective measures to solve the problem and safeguard the environment. A plausible solution to manage the under-estimated trash is to convert it into something as treasured as energy and fuel, which many developed countries have already implemented. The substantial stockpile of waste can be circumvented by uncapping its potential to generate functional by-products like heat, fuel, energy and electricity by using what is called as Waste to Energy (WTE) technology. The focus thus should now move from traditional landfills, open dumps and incineration to proficient waste management systems like thermal treatment methods, biological treatment methods, landfill gas utilization, mechanical biological treatment and biorefineries. Off late even better technologies have come up, including biohydrogen generation from municipal solid waste (MSW). This review paper describes various cutting-edge technologies employed across the globe to effectively convert waste into energy and pave the way for a sustainable future for all.

Mini Review Article

HEALTH BENEFITS OF Cordyceps militaris: OVERVIEW

NANCY SHARMA, VIPASHA SHARMA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 217-223

For centuries, traditional Chinese medicine has relied on medicinal mushrooms as a panacea to strengthen the immune system and revitalize the human body, because mushrooms have different biological functions. The bio-active compounds of this fungus contain cordycepin, cordymin, ergosterol, glycoproteins and polysaccharides which are considered as immunity enhancers and beneficial in various treatments related to kidney, hyperglycemia and liver damage. In the present review, we will focus on Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) which is known as an essential medicine for potential therapeutic uses. Some ailments like thrombolytic effect, diabetic, melanogenesis and infertility are effectively healed by using constituents extracted from C. militaris. Hence, C. militaris is providing an understanding of all its constituent and novel therapeutic strategies to cure diseases.

Mini Review Article

REVIEW ARTICLE ON PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF Portulaca quadrifida Linn. AND Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.

MANISHA BHATTI, JITENDER SINGH, DIVYA DHAWAL BHANDARI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 234-239

Traditional medication has gained popularity globally in past few decades for mitigating number of disorders with least side effects. These herbal medications have proven significant effects in preventing and treating diseases. Present article reviewed the presence of phytoconstituents and different pharmacological profile of two herbal plants i.e Portulaca quadrifida Linn. and Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. It has proven that presence of phytoconstituents signifies the pharmacological activities in plants. The plant P. quadrifida possess alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids and saponins and have antifungal, anticonvulsant, neuropharmacological activity, dysentery, antigastric and anti-inflammatory activities whereas, the P. scrobiculatum possess flavonoids, phenolic acids, carbohydrates, fats, oils, tannins, amino acids and proteins in different extracts and signifies anti-fungal effects, anticancer, antidepressant, antihyperlipidemic,  and antioxidant profile.

Mini Review Article

ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN FOLKLORE MEDICINE IN INDIA: A REVIEW

PRERNA HAZARIKA, APURVA KOUL, SHANU MAGOTRA, JASVEEN BAJWA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 254-261

Diabetic Mellitus is one of the essential pervasive sickness internationally. The primary point of this examination is to look at different therapeutic plants utilized for antidiabetic action. Since old days plants has been a fantastic foundation of medication. This review paper speaks to the significant characters of some restorative plants with hypoglycaemic properties. Those plants can hamper the advancement of diabetes and exact metabolic issue.

Systematic Reviews

EFFICIENT GREEN APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 1, 4-dihydropyridines UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS ADOPTED IN INDIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

DHARAMBEER SINGH, HARVINDER SINGH SOHAL

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 262-271

The 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives are a class of compounds having diverse applications in the biological world. Seeking the importance of this class many methods have been developed to synthesize the desired products in diversified manners. As some of the very important derivatives are used for medical purposes, most of the researchers are looking for more convenient, efficient, and environmentally benign methods. This review concentrates on the solvent-free methods for the synthesis of derivatives specifically used in India, to acknowledge the efforts and contribution by the Indian researchers, also discussing the catalyst used, conditions, percentage yield, and some of the advantages-disadvantages. A systematic approach was selected to search the different databases.