The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Zinc (Zn) and Boron (B) on agro-morphological and seed quality attributes of Camelina sativa. The experiment consisted of 3 levels (2%, 4% and 6%) of each mentioned nutrients along with control (no application of micronutrients). Means were calculated and subjected to analysis of variance and LSD analysis, at 5 % level of significance. Following parameters viz., plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, thousand seed weight (g), grain yield (kg/ha), harvest index (%), dry matter accumulation (g/m2), crop growth rate (g/m2/day), biological yield (kg/ha), and oil yield (kg/ha) were evaluated. All subjected treatments were tested for every tested parameter, and results revealed significant values comparative to control. It was observed that foliar application of both boron and zinc micronutrients yielded maximum in all parameters in comparison with control which seems promising to improve crop development, oil yield and harvest index of Camelina sativa L.
The present investigation is focused on the effect of different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride treatment on banana shoot tip (G-9) encapsulation for the formation of artificial seeds. For this, different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride were checked for optimum encapsulation. In vitro culture shoot tips of bananas were encapsulated by using different concentrations of sodium alginate i.e. (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) and calcium chloride (50 mM, 75mM, 100 mM and 150 mM). Further, the storage viability of encapsulated shoot tips was also examined. Encapsulated shoot tips were stored at two different temperatures i.e., 4℃ and 25℃. Results indicated that the best alginate concentration for encapsulation was found at 3% (w/v) and 100 mM calcium chloride. The beads were formed globular, firm and found suitable for handling and exhibited a germination frequency of 93.33% on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BAP and IAA (5.0 + 1.0 mg/l, respectively). The encapsulated shoot tips showed different responses after storage at different temperatures. The multiplication frequency declined for both tested storage temperatures i.e., 4℃ and 25℃. Encapsulated shoot tips stored at 4℃ showed survival for longer storage with a regeneration frequency of 91.33%, whereas, capsules stored at 25℃ resulted in rapid deterioration within 90 days and exhibited a maximum multiplication frequency as 61.66%. This indicates that storage at low temperatures is more effective. This study could be applied as an alternative method of banana micropropagation as well as germplasm conservation.
The aim of this study was to check the cooking quality of Basmati varieties grown at different locations in Punjab, Pakistan. This experiment was conducted in a factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors considered were variety (Super Basmati, PK 1121 aromatic and Basmati 515), and geographical region (Kala shah kaku (KSK), Faisalabad, Bahawalnagar, Farooqabad and Sargodha). Collected cleaned Paddy samples were converted to white rice and analyzed for milling, chemical and cooking properties. Data revealed significant impacts of variety and location on rice quality traits. The variety Super basmati was the most consistent in terms of grain length, amylose, alkali-spreading value and elongation ratio (E/R) among all studied locations. The mean grain length of studied varieties ranged from 7.18 to 8.50 mm. The alkali spreading value ranged from 4.00 to 7.0. Basmati-515 grown at Farooqabad had significantly more grain elongation (2.08) compared to others. The protein content was intermediate in all the studied varieties grown at all regions (6.80 to 7.50 %). The maximum values for average grain length (AGL) (8.50), cooked grain length (CGL) (17.45) and E/R (2.08) were found in PK 1121 Aromatic at KSK and Farooqabad respectively. This study can help the researchers to decide suitable area for specific rice varieties.
Corrosion of all forms can cause many economic losses. One type of corrosion, biocorrosion, is due to the action of microorganisms including fungi and more research concerning this cause of corrosion is needed. The aim of this manuscript is divided into two parts. Firstly, we use a Scopus bibliometric analysis of publications to develop a general overview of corrosion and biocorrosion research trends from 1900 to 2021. Secondly, using a deep analysis of all the Scopus recorded publications, we determine the different antifungal agents effective against Penicillium cyclopium, used here as an example of fungi involved in biocorrosion. The general overview demonstrates a clear progression and increase of number of publications in the two fields of corrosion and biocorrosion. However, from a total of 304,863 publications related to corrosion, only 1.5% are related to biocorrosion. The most studied metal is "steel" followed by "alloy'' and "aluminum". For microorganisms, the most studied are Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) followed by Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria (SOB) and Iron Bacteria (IB). In relation to antifungal agents for the fungus Penicillium cyclopium, we found sixteen antifungal agents described in the literature. We hope this study may give scientists insights to further examine the potential for antifungal applications in the reduction and remediation of biocorrosion.
Chishtian city was being explored for the collection of fresh water algae in the present study and for those purpose 12 samples of fresh algae from different areas was being collected. From those samples total 28 species was being collected that belong to 16 genera, 11 families, 7 orders and total 4 phylum including, Cyanophycota, Volvocophycota, Bacillariophycota and Chlorophycota. Those samples were being collected from September 2019 to December 2019. After they were classified and identified taxonomically upto species level by using Shameel classification [25,26]. Those 28 species that are being obtained in the total research work: Kingdom Monera has been acknowledged with phylum one; Cyanophycota that omits two classes, two orders, two families four genera and eight species that were following; Chroococus turgidus, Merismopedia punctate, Oscillatoria rubescens, O. priencp, O. tenuis, O. ornate, Spirulina gigantea and Arthospira platensis. Kingdom Protista has been identified with two phylum; Volvocophycota and Bacillariophycota with three classes, four orders, eight families, 11 genera and 18 species which were following; Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Scenedesmus armatus, S. dimorphus, S. bijuga, Cosmerium botrytis, C. microsphinctum, C. pseudopyramiolatum, Closterium turgidum, Fragilaria ulna, F. crotonensis, Ghomphonemia ghosea, Navicula exigua, Nitzschia acicularis, Gyrosigma acuminatum, G. scalproides, Cymbella ventricosa, Cyclotella operculata, C. meneghiniana. Kingdom protoctista have one phylum; Chlorophycota that have 1 class, one order, one family and two species that are following, Spirogyra pratensis and S. acquinoctialis.
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an important enzyme in the two-step biosynthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic organisms. SPS catalyzes the formation of Sucrose-6-phosphate which is subsequently converted to sucrose. SPS is believed to have regulatory roles in sucrose biosynthesis through interaction with Serine Kinase, 14-3-3 protein and SPP. Nevertheless, the protein-protein interaction sites on SPS are not well characterized. This study focuses on identification of functionally important residues other than the catalytic residues in SPS through evolutionary trace analysis and structural mapping of key residues. We found that other than catalytic sites, many residues are absolutely conserved and are either buried or exposed. The exposed highly conserved sites are putative protein-protein interaction sites. We have also identified residues which are class specifically conserved in SPS4. Mapping of the class specific residues on SPS crystal structure revealed their distribution close to the catalytic site. Therefore, the class specific conserved sites in SPS4 can be predicted to be influencing catalysis.
Maize (Zea mays L) is a parsimoniously important cereal crop after wheat and rice because it is rich in carbohydrates, protein, fiber, sugar, and ash, and oil that’s used as human food and the crop is used as animal feed too. The stalk rot of maize caused by Fusarium moniliforme (Fm) is one of the most important emerging threats to the successful production of maize in Pakistan. In this study the physicochemical characterization of Fm was done. Diseased samples of maize were collected from Faisalabad regions. Pathogen was isolated from the infected maize plant. In physiological test different pH levels (8.5, 7.5, 6.5 and 4) were evaluated and the highest fungal growth was observed at pH 7.5 (14.50mm), and the effect of different temperature (23, 28, 33, and 38) were also assessed. At 28°C temperature (38.42mm) the highest growth was observed. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, dextrose, and maltose) versus were assessed. Glucose as a carbon source showed the highest fungal growth (11.62mm). Nitrogen sources such as urea, Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), and potassium nitrate (KNO3) were assessed, and urea showed the highest fungal growth (34.86mm). Fm was characterized by using biochemical tests such as cellulose hydrolysis, urease activity, β-glucosidase activity, phosphate, and polyphenol oxidases activity. All these biochemical showed the positive results except urease activity test. All the experiments were conducted under lab conditions by using Randomized Complete Block Design (CRBD). To observe the difference in response of treatments, least significant difference (LSD) was used at 0.05 % probability level.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) a perennial monocotyledonous tree it’s have an ecological importance and economical role in several countries of Middle East and North Africa, date palm can’t be propagate by seeds, meanwhile the offshoots produced low numbers of offshoots for the given period, so tissue culture technique become a great important for produced the huge demand plantlets, the in vitro technique facing a problem as the contamination by bacterial and fungus that lead to loss the cultures, for eliminate this problem many treatments were used as chitosan 5 and 15 ml/l, AgNO3 4.0 and 7.0 ml/l, Zn 4.0 and 7.0 mg/l and cu 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l. as the main forms or as a nanoparticles NPs in addition to streptomycin 40 and 50 mg/l and AgNO3 + Sodium thiosulfate 0.5 and 1.0 ml/l were added to rooting stage medium for 3 subcultures for each, then these plantlets were acclimatized under greenhouse condition. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared following t-test using LSD values at 5%. The percentage of cultures contamination was to be found zero % with the treatments chitosan, silver nitrate AgNO3, in addition to the combination of Chitosan + AgNO3, chitosan + Zn and finally chitosan + Cu at all tested levels produced, while the treatments Zn and Cu at two tested levels produced 11% contamination, the observation of the vegetative growth and leaves contents of indoles and amino acids mg/g f.w. were found highest values under chitosan and AgNO3 and the combination in between as the main forms or as NPs treatments, as well as, the acclimatization stage presented the great survival percentage % under Chitosan and AgNO3 and combination in between as the main form or as NPs. The present study have been suggest that NPs chitosan, AgNO3 and the combination in between might be a promising method for reduced or eliminate the in vitro microbes, reduced the harmful effects on the valuable date palm plantlets and increasing growth parameters.